Vedik India
updated 21st January 2006

"Our English schools are flourishing wonderfully; we find it difficult to provide instruction to all. The effect of this education on Hindus is prodigious. No Hindu who has received an English education ever remains sincerely attached to his religion. It is my firm belief that if our plans of education are followed up, there will not be a single idolater among the respected classes 30 years hence. And this will be effected without our efforts to proselytize; I heartily rejoice in the prospect"

Lord Macaulay

- from a letter to his father dated Oct. 12th, 1836

Afghanistan (ancient coins with Krishna Balaram on them)
Sri Lanka (NASA pictures of the bridge that Lord Rama built with the monkey soldiers to Lankha)

Taj Mahal formerly an Hindu temple

How the name India came into existence - Sindu - Hindu........

Many more links


Imperialist Propaganda and the Aryan Invasion Lie

   Date: Thu, 24 Feb 2005 14:59:52 -0800 (PST)
   From: Vrn Parker <>
Subject: On the Vedic Empire and Aryans

N. Anonymous

In an age where lies are mass-produced by powerful and manipulative governments, packaged, shipped, and then sold for consumption to the general public through various media outlets, true scholarship, void of bias, political, or material motivation, is difficult to come across, if not almost impossible. And extensive publications that are released, re-edited and then subsequently re-released, which describe the histories of countless countries subjected to European colonialism, which are produced by the colonizers themselves, are certainly no exception. I'd like to briefly discuss a topic that is very contentious and emotive, especially for Indians, as it is nothing less than an unprecedented historical scandal that somehow managed to be passed off as genuine scholarship.

The Aryan invasion theory basically states that the Indian civilization is a foreign creation, and that the entire culture is actually the invention of an invading race of blonde-haired, white-skinned foreigners from Europe. It is these primitive invaders, the theory says, that created an ancient civilization flourishing with advanced forms of technology and science, along with an enormous archive of transcendental wisdom, that is collectively known as India's Vedic empire. Proponents of the theory insist on building insidious and unproven arguments based on the Aryan invasion scheme, going as far as suggesting that the Indian natives were illiterate savages. Suspicion immediately arises when the monumental achievements of an ancient civilization are accredited to 'foreign white races' for which the scholars have no evidence of. Yes, the dubiousness of such bold claims becomes apparent to those who understand the mechanism of imperialist regimes and of those who follow in their footsteps. This form of postulation is consistent with the evangelistic mentality of perceiving indigenous peoples as being incapable of social evolution. This gives rise to notions of superiority, and this form of supremacy then attempts to validate the need for imperialism. So in effect, the Aryan invasion theory also makes the daring claim that all Indians of non-Dravidian background are essentially the descendents of this intrusive white race of barbaric marauders from Europe. The fallacies of this theory have been exposed and the truth continues to surface repeatedly, especially through the fields of archaeology and Vedic studies, yet it is ignored and rejected by those in positions of power. Even many of those who no longer believe in the Aryan invasion theory have been mislead into thinking that the whole project was due to honest mistakes in scholarship. However, the idea of an Aryan invasion is not the result of erroneous research or innocent misinterpretations of history.

 No, on the contrary, the Aryan invasion theory is the product of clever premeditation, a deliberate plot devised by numerous parties for political reasons, with racism centered at its core. Aside from being a tool used to maintain political ownership over India, the Aryan invasion theory ultimately promotes the racist notion that white-skinned Europeans are an inherently superior race of human beings, a superhuman species of some sort which, under the guidance of an apparent manifest destiny, colonized the natives of India to eradicate 'barbarianism' and establish 'civilization.'

The Aryan invasion theory goes on to say that this race of primitive invaders raided India sometime between 1500 and 100 B.C., enslaved the natives, and then spontaneously created a globally admired civilization that was unparalleled at the time. The British colonists, whose main aim was to subjugate the people of India under their authoritative Christian rule, and the prejudiced western scholars who together engineered the Aryan invasion theory, along with diehard advocates of the theory, have still not been able to make up their minds as to when this group of invaders first entered the nation, if they ever did, assuming that such a race of people actually existed. In fact, the so-called scholars who promote this propaganda haven't even been able to agree on a homeland from which this mysterious race of people originated, let alone generate ample evidence to formulate a convincing argument! They've simply thrown a handful of countries randomly into the air, still indecisive as to which one would create the most believable scenario. So far, every country eastward from Greece to Iran has been a candidate for the origin of these alleged 'Aryan invaders', including the Caucasus mountain range located between the Black and Caspian seas, along with the Eurasian areas of western Russia and Kazakhstan. As more and more information relating to Indian history is gathered, it becomes painfully obvious that the 'Aryan invasion' was a fictional event that was not a part of genuine history. Therefore, every assertion ever made regarding the history of India that finds it's basis on the Aryan invasion theory has no foundation in reality, as it possesses no supplemental data to reaffirm such an absurd claim, and must be rejected accordingly, as it is nothing more than mere speculative gossip on the part of racist scholars and authors with hidden agendas. It is these scholars, who write false renditions of history based on a theory that's grounded on Eurocentric narcissism and anti-Indian slander, who are responsible for intentionally publishing libel in the form of calumniating Indian and world history books, millions of which are sold yearly advocating this bogus notion of 'Aryan invasion.'

'Aryans' are not a race of nomadic European conquerors that rode into India on horses and chariots, wielding swords used in pillaging and colonizing the natives, driving them to the southernmost part of the country. They are not the mighty blond-haired, white-skinned warriors and traveling pirates that, according to popular belief, mated with the local women and created the Vedic empire after forcing the indigenous population into submission. No, at best this representation is a gross falsification and utter distortion of recorded history, a lie of the highest magnitude. The Aryan invasion theory is a scandal perhaps unequalled in the world of scholarship, evoking delusions of grandeur in its advocates regarding the allegedly inherent superiority of the 'great white race.' One single piece of evidence supporting this malicious campaign remains to be seen, although many in the western world become infatuated with such romanticized dogmas and believe them without any further question. Western audiences quickly accept tales of swashbuckling conquerors as truth, as they appeal to the primitive instinct of man, and because they have unfortunately been a reality for many indigenous cultures from around the world. Moreover, the Sanskrit term 'Aryan' is not even a racial connotation! It doesn't refer to a wandering race of barbarians, but rather to a person who follows a certain spiritual code, irrespective of race, color, religion, or nationality. 'Arya' can be roughly translated as 'one on the path of spiritual evolution', and 'Ya' refers to the supreme personality of God, Yadu, which is an alias for Krishna. Thus, a loose but appropriate definition of 'Aryan' would be 'one who is on the path to God-realization.' To apply this term to define nomadic barbarians, whose pastimes include the conquering and slaughtering of peaceful people, is ridiculous to say the very least.

The progenitors of the Vedic civilization were indigenous to India, contrary to popular belief. A great contradiction that is often overlooked lies here. We would be safe in assessing the level of mental development-insofar as it relates to the overall spiritual evolution of a race of plundering nomads perpetually engaged in the act of conquering societies of peaceful people-as being elementary, if not primitive. Primeval savages are not enlightened beings. This is even more evident if we take into consideration that these violent conquerors that supposedly existed were attributed to destroying any sign of civilization that they could find upon their mythical entry into India. How then, could a traveling gang of bloodthirsty bandits with no concept of civilization, oblivious of cooperation, obnoxiously counterproductive towards social progression, and thriving off of hatred, war, and destruction, possibly possess the mental abilities necessary to be able to produce a profound library of voluminous, eloquently written literature giving credence to highly advanced forms of astronomy, philosophy, mathematics, and religion? How could these roaming barbarians have created Sanskrit, the planet's oldest and most scientific language and parent language of almost all European and Asian languages? Are primitive savages to be accredited with creating this enormous archive of knowledge that gives credence to ages of erudition? In other words, how could a race of vagabond barbarians possess the capacity to create a highly advanced civilization? It's simply not possible.

The argument of the Aryan invasion theory becomes even more absurd once the basic principles of Sanatan Dharm, literally meaning 'the eternal religion', or better known as 'Hinduism', are explained. The wisdom found in the Vedas (ancient Indian scriptures) is said to be of divine origin, transmitted to the rishis, or ancient Indian seers, directly from the cosmos, from sentient beings residing in higher dimensions of existence that we are incapable of perceiving with the sensory organs alone. The rishis originally communicated the Vedic wisdom orally and then eventually transcribed it into literary format, in the form of the Vedas. The cosmic knowledge contained within the Vedas is not representative of the tenets of nomadic European barbarians! This should be quite obvious. Rather, the principles that constitute Sanatan Dharm are said to be universal truths that can be made to apply to beings living throughout the entire universe, not limited only to planet Earth or a certain region of our planet. These truths have been said to exist without a beginning and will continue to exist without end, hence the name 'eternal religion.' A most basic and fundamental principle of the eternal religion is that of non-violence. Taken in this context, the idea of a violent Aryan invasion into India is most incongruous with basic religious, humane principles that the primitive barbarians, who the scholars tell us founded the Indian civilization, are credited with loyally abiding by! Is it possible for tribes of ruthless, primitive conquerors to be skilled practitioners of non-violence who simultaneously possess a profound, awe-inspiring understanding of the universe? The answer needs no acknowledgement as the question answers itself!

The native denizens of India established the nucleus of the Vedic empire along the banks of the Indus and now dried-up Saraswati Rivers in northwestern India and Pakistan, although evidence of an advanced civilization of remote antiquity can be found throughout the country. For example, the Marine Archaeological Unit of the National Institute of Oceanography found the submerged city of Dwaraka, whose existence was until recently thought to be purely mythical, along the coast of Gujarat in 1985. This finding gives credence to the validity of the Mahabharata civilization of 3,000 B.C., explained in detail in the Mahabharata, which clearly illustrates the uninterrupted continuity of Indian civilization. Also, close geographical and geological examination of India, along with satellite photography, indicates that the massive Saraswati river, which is mentioned more times than any other river in the Rig Veda (oldest of the Vedas) and is described as being the life-giving center of the Vedic civilization, once flowed profusely, and that it dried up before 3,000 B.C., prior to any alleged Aryan invasion, thereby proving that the Vedas could not have been written some 1,500-2,000 years later by a race of foreign invaders! The oceanic symbolism, numerous maritime references, and astounding depth of knowledge regarding India's geography, which is vividly described in the Rig Veda, also prove that the founders of the Vedic civilization were native to India and could not have arrived from the distant land-locked areas that they are believed to have migrated from. In fact, the only type of migration that all genuine forms of evidence point to is that of the Vedic people leaving India in periodic diffusions, migrating in every direction due to natural disasters.

Moreover, the Harappan civilization (stretching from the borders of Iran to eastern Uttar Pradesh, larger than Mesopotamia and Egypt combined) has been incorrectly labeled 'pre-Vedic' because the archaeological excavations made in many of its sites unearthed the ruins of colossal urban cities that antedate all estimates ever given for the Aryan invasion, bringing the giant ancient civilization possibly as far back as 3,000 B.C. The scholars either intentionally ignore or carelessly overlook the uncanny similarities discovered to mutually exist between Harappa and the Vedic culture. Vedic tradition permeates Harappa, such as worship of fire altars, swastika symbols, seals depicting Lord Siva, and the legendary omkar symbol, all of which were found throughout several Harappan sites falsely labeled 'pre-Vedic.' Harappan and Vedic civilizations share more than a mere resemblance; they are identical. The similarities cannot be dismissed as coincidental and could not have developed independently of each other. The connection between Harappa and the Vedic civilization is obvious. They are one and the same. Harappa was the final monument of the Vedic Age. It has even been verifiably demonstrated that Harappa was built using highly advanced forms of mathematics, Vedic mathematics, derived directly from the Rig Veda, so it is impossible for this civilization to have been invaded and destroyed centuries later by an invading race of nomads who wrote the Vedas after its destruction! A mathematical doctrine belonging to the Vedic civilization, known as the Sulba-sutras, has been shown to be the source of both Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics, and the construction of Harappan fire altars were based on this text. Egyptian texts based on the Sulba-sutras date back to 2000 B.C., so Harappa clearly must predate even this date. Advocates of the Aryan invasion theory have been unable to address these issues and remain silent on such matters.

The Aryan invasion theory is a practice in racism, grounded specifically in western supremacy and geared towards oppressing the Indians by robbing their cultural identity and falsifying their ancestral heritage. It asserts that the Indian culture was an extension of previous developments made in Europe and that it was dependent on the superior intelligence of Europeans, thereby justifying the need for colonial rule and militant Christian expansion in India. It was also a colonization strategy utilized by the British regime to divide and conquer India by creating enmity between the inhabitants of the south and north, thus making it much easier to rule over a people who were plagued by internal dissension and lack of unity. The creator of this Aryan-Dravidian divide theory himself, Bishop Caldwell, admitted his linguistic theories to be of "vast political and moral importance", that being to serve the purpose of Christian missionary propaganda.

The British regime did not want it publicly known that the indigenous people of India built a highly advanced civilization in ancient times, one that eventually spawned the mathematics, science, philosophy, and religion of the rest of the world. So in order to debase the proficiency of the ancient Indians, they manufactured the Aryan invasion lie. Through the use of puppets, including prominent western scholars that work at prestigious institutions such as Harvard and Oxford and possess significant influence over academic circles, the British regime continues to enslave the Indian people, working secretly by promoting unfounded hearsay through the medium of 'Indology' courses taught at rich American universities. Along with these professors, the British Empire makes use of leftist Indian pseudo-scholars who wish to maintain a high position in the status quo, and Marxist Dravidians whose hubris prevents them from abandoning their animosity towards Indians that they perceive as being the descendents of the 'invading Aryans.' These pseudo-scholars, who also have the power to influence academic circles (which in turn publish material that influences the entire world), act as successors to dogmatic Christian missionaries left over from the British colonial era. Their libel is published on a large scale in India, where the universities quickly begin teaching this corrupted version of Indian history to its own people. This is a subtle, nearly undetectable form of slavery, which makes it extremely dangerous, as this form of spoon-feeding students misinformation under the pretext of 'formal education' is capable of programming millions in the absence of their awareness.

German nationalist and Christian missionary Max Muller further advanced the cause of the British regime and expanded the Aryan invasion theory, being one of the many major proponents of the theory who was simultaneously on the British government's payroll. Being well versed in Sanskrit and a world famous Orientalist who studied at Oxford, people from around the world naturally began to believe everything Muller said without thinking twice. What's worse is that in 1853 he introduced the Sanskrit term 'Aryan', which means 'one on the path to God-realization', into the English language; but he created a false meaning for it. He used the term 'Aryan' to describe a large family of languages. Under this phony definition he created even more fallacies, lying blatantly by speaking of "An Aryan language and its descendents" as quoted by Sir Julian Huxley. But Muller's racist campaign of degrading Indian culture did not stop there. He also created a fictional 'Aryan race' that he could associate with his equally fictitious 'Aryan language family.' These inane, fraudulent notions were "rapidly taken up in both England and Germany", as noted by Huxley. As a result, the idea of an 'Aryan invasion' into India became a globally accepted part of Indian history, although there was no evidence then, as there is no evidence now, for such a farcical claim. Muller even flatly stated in a letter he wrote to Duke of Argyll, who was appointed Secretary of State for India in December 1868, that "India has been conquered once, but India must be conquered again and that second conquest should be a conquest by education." He also added: "The ancient religion is doomed, and if Christianity does not step in, whose fault will it be?" Muller's methods of distorting widely available information on such a large scale, globally manipulating millions of people for the following one hundred and fifty years, would be impressive from a propagandist's viewpoint and are beyond the comprehension of the author of this essay. The icing on the imperialists' victory cake was the rise of Hitler. Hitler's decision to make the swastika, an ancient Indian emblem symbolizing peace and prosperity, the official symbol of his Nazi campaign, along with his habit of openly referring to himself and his Nazi army as 'Aryans', believing that they were members of a supreme human race, resulted in the inevitable completion of what Max Muller began.

One reason that this slanderous Aryan invasion theory worked and was easy to accept on a wide scale is because invasions were commonplace throughout India's history and had been well documented, providing easy accessibility to anyone who cared to research the topic. This calculated scheme also appealed to the masses because it remained consistent with the much-popularized Judeo-Christian tradition, which is filled with tales of invasions and blood baths glorifying militant colonial expansion. A one-dimensional image of history has been imprinted onto the minds of the public, making it difficult for people to perceive the many alternate historical scenarios possible.

Both the antiquity and authenticity of the Vedic civilization are purposely neglected and its uniqueness continues to go unrecognized. The genuineness of the Vedic civilization is denied even to this day, debauched and insulted by the very same minds that idolize the Biblical time scale, believing that the world was created in November of 4004 B.C., although evidence and sensibility clearly refute such nonsense. Those who vehemently believed in such absurd ideologies clearly found it impossible to acknowledge the venerability of the Indian civilization, and these are the same people who for some reason were given the task of 'teaching' the world about Indian culture. The defamatory Aryan invasion propaganda made it so that India could not claim ownership over any of its monumental achievements-the amazing discoveries of the Vedic civilization therefore had to be the product of intelligent, Christian, European minds-or so the British empire would want us to believe. It also meant that foreign imposition was necessary to 'civilize' India. Taken from this viewpoint, the Aryan invasion theory placed Hinduism as an import, as foreign to India as Islam and Christianity are. These historical forgeries helped to create a contaminated, untrue perspective of India, forcing people to perceive Indian culture as simply a combination of foreign influences. India was viewed from then on, and continues to be viewed by those who unknowingly accept the Aryan invasion theory as true, as a vast area of land with no cultural, religious, or national identity of its own, and is therefore treated as such, its future left entirely at the mercy of imperialistic forces that wish to shape it from the mold of their own selfish agendas. The collective identity of a nation and its inhabitants is thus destroyed.

N. Anonymous, 19, writes from Maine.

Ancient Hindus could navigate the air
By Shachi Rairikar

   Date: Thu, 24 Feb 2005 14:47:30 -0800 (PST)
   From: Vrn Parker <>
Subject: Ancient Hindus could navigate the air

“The ancient Hindus could navigate the air, and not only navigate it, but fight battles in it like so many war-eagles combating for the domination of the clouds. To be so perfect in aeronautics, they must have known all the arts and sciences related to the science, including the strata and currents of the atmosphere, the relative temperature, humidity, density and specific gravity of the various gases...”
—Col. Olcott in a lecture in Allahabad, in 1881.

The Rig Veda, the oldest document of the human race, includes references to the following modes of transportation: jalayan—a vehicle designed to operate in air and water (Rig Veda 6.58.3); kaara—a vehicle that operates on ground and in water (Rig Veda 9.14.1); tritala—a vehicle consisting of three storeys (Rig Veda 3.14.1); trichakra ratha—a three-wheeled vehicle designed to operate in air (Rig Veda 4.36.1); vaayu ratha—a gas or wind-powered chariot (Rig Veda 5.41.6); vidyut ratha—a vehicle that operates on power (Rig Veda 3.14.1).

Ancient Sanskrit literature is full of descriptions of flying machines—vimanas. From the many documents found, it is evident that the scientist-sages Agastya and Bharadwaja had developed the lore of aircraft construction.

The Agastya Samhita gives Agastya’s descriptions on two types of aeroplanes. The first is a chchatra (umbrella or balloon) to be filled with hydrogen. The process of extracting hydrogen from water is described in elaborate detail and the use of electricity in achieving this is clearly stated. This was considered to be a primitive type of plane, useful only for escaping from a fort when the enemy had set fire to the jungle all around. Hence the name agniyana. The second type of aircraft mentioned is somewhat on the lines of the parachute. It could be opened and shut by operating chords. This aircraft has been described as vimanadvigunam, i.e. of a lower order than the regular aeroplane.

The process of extracting hydrogen from water is described in elaborate detail and the use of electricity in achieving this is clearly stated.

Aeronautics or Vaimaanika Shastra is a part of Yantra Sarvasva of Bharadwaja. This is also known as Brihadvimaana Shastra. Vaimaanika Shastra deals with aeronautics, including the design of aircraft, the way they can be used for transportation and other applications, in detail. The knowledge of aeronautics is described in Sanskrit in 100 sections, eight chapters, 500 principles and 3,000 shlokas. Great sage Bharadwaja explained the construction of aircraft and the way to fly it in air, on land, on water and use the same aircraft like a submarine. He also described the construction of war-planes and fighter aircraft.

Vaimaanika Shastra explains the metals and alloys and other required material, which can make an aircraft imperishable in any condition. Planes which will not break (abhedya), or catch fire (adaahya) and which cannot be cut (achchedya) have been described. Along with the treatise, there are diagrams on three types of aeroplanes—Sundara, Shukana and Rukma.

The aircraft is classified into three types—Mantrika, Tantrika and Kritaka, to suit different yugas or eras. In krita yuga, it is said, Dharma was well established. The people of that time had the divinity to reach any place using their ashtasiddhis. The aircraft used in treta yuga are called Mantrika vimana, flown by the power of hymns (mantras). Twenty-five varieties of aircraft including Pushpaka vimana belong to this era. The aircraft used in dwapara yuga were called Tantrika vimana, flown by the power of tantras. Fifty-six varieties of aircraft including Bhairava and Nandaka belong to this era. The aircraft used in kali yuga, the on-going yuga, are called Kritaka vimana, flown by the power of engines. Twenty-five varieties of aircraft including Sundara, Shukana and Rukma belong to this era.

Bharadwaja states that there are 32 secrets of the science of aeronautics. Of these, some are astonishing and some indicate an advance even beyond our own times. For instance, the secret of para shabda graaha, i.e. a cabin for listening to the conversation in another plane, has been explained by elaborately describing an electrically worked sound-receiver that did the trick. Manufacture of different types of instruments and putting them together to form an aircraft are also described.

It appears that aerial warfare was also not unknown, for the treatise gives the techniques of shatru vimana kampana kriya, and shatru vimana nashana kriya, i.e. shaking and destroying enemy aircraft, as well as photographing enemy planes, rendering their occupants unconscious and making one’s own plane invisible.

In Vastraadhikarana, the chapter describing the dress and other material required while flying, talks in detail about the clotheswear for both the pilot and the passenger separately.

Ahaaraadhikarana is yet another section exclusively dealing with the food habits of a pilot. This has a variety of guidelines for pilots to maintain their health through strict diet.

Bharadwaja also provides a bibliography. He had consulted six treatises by six different authors previous to him and he gives their names and the names of their works in the following order: Vimana Chandrika by Narayanamuni; Vyoma Yana Mantrah by Shaunaka; Yantra Kalpa by Garga; Yana Bindu by Vachaspati; Kheta Yaana Pradeepika by Chaakraayani; Vyoma Yaanarka Prakasha by Dundi Natha.

As before Bharadwaja, after him too there have been Sanskrit writers on aeronautics and there were four commentaries on his work. The names of the commentators are Bodh Deva, Lalla, Narayana Shankha and Vishwambhara.

Vaimaanika Shastra explains the metals and alloys and other required material, which can make an aircraft imperishable in any condition.

Evidence of existence of aircraft are also found in the Arthashastra of Kautilya (c. 3rd century b.c.). Kautilya mentions amongst various tradesmen and technocrats the saubhikas as ‘pilots conducting vehicles in the sky’. Saubha was the name of the aerial flying city of King Harishchandra and the form saubika means ‘one who flies or knows the art of flying an aerial city’. Kautilya uses another significant word, akasa yodhinah, which has been translated as ‘persons who are trained to fight from the sky’. The existence of aerial chariots, in whatever form it might be, was so well-known that it found a place among the royal edicts of Emperor Asoka and which were executed during his reign from 256-237 b.c.

It is interesting to note that the Academy of Sanskrit Research in Melkote, near Mandya, had been commissioned by the Aeronautical Research Development Board, New Delhi, to take up a one-year study on ‘Non-conventional Approach to Aeronautics’, on the basis of Vaimaanika Shastra. As a result of the research, a glass-like material which cannot be detected by radar has been developed by Prof. Dongre, a research scholar of Benaras Hindu University. A plane coated with this unique material cannot be detected using radar.

But perhaps the most interesting thing about the Indian science of aeronautics and Bharadwaja’s research in the field was that they were successfully tested in actual practice by an Indian over a 100 years ago. In 1895, full eight years before the Wright Brothers’ first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, USA, Shivkar Bapuji Talpade and his wife gave a thrilling demonstration flight on Chowpatty beach in Mumbai.

An even more astonishing feature of Talpade’s aircraft was the power source he used—an ion engine. The theory of the ion engine has been credited to Robert Goddard, long recognised as the father of liquid-fuel rocketry. It is claimed that in 1906, long before Goddard launched his first modern rocket, his imagination had conceived the concept of an ion rocket. But the fact is that not only had the idea of an ion engine been conceived long before Dr Goddard, it had also been materialised in the form of Talpade’s aircraft.

Talpade, a resident of Mumbai, was an erudite scholar of Sanskrit literature, especially of the Vedas, an inventor and a teacher in the School of Arts. His deep study of the Vedas led him to construct an aeroplane in conformity with the descriptions of the aircraft available in the Vedas and he displayed it in an exhibition arranged by the Bombay Art Society in the Town Hall. Its proving the star attraction of the exhibition encouraged its maker to delve deeper into the matter and see if the plane could be flown with the aid of mercurial pressure. For, the one hundred-and-ninetieth richa (verse) of the Rig Veda and the aeronautical treatise of Bharadwaja mention that flying machines came into full operation when the power of the sun’s rays, mercury and another chemicals called naksha rasas were blended together. This energy was, it seems, stored in something like an accumulator or storage batteries. The Vedas refer to eight different engines in the plane and Bharadwaja adds that they
 are worked by electricity.

Talpade carried on his research along these lines and constructed an aeroplane. In his experiments he was aided by his wife, also a deep scholar of the Vedic lore, and an architect-friend. The plane combined the constructional characteristics of both Pushpaka and Marut Sakha, the sixth and eighth types of aircraft described by Bharadwaja. It was named Marut Sakha meaning “friend of the wind”.

With this plane, this pioneer airman of modern India gave a demonstration flight on the Chowpatty beach in Mumbai in the year 1895. The machine attained a height of about 1,500 feet and then automatically landed safely. The flight was witnessed, among many others, by Shri Sayajirao Gaekwad, the Maharaja of Baroda and Justice Govind Ranade and was reported in the Kesari, a leading Marathi daily newspaper. They were impressed by the feat and rewarded the talented inventor.

Unfortunately, Talpade lost interest in things after his wife’s death, and after his own death in 1917 at the age of 53, his relatives sold the machine to the Rally Brothers, a leading British exporting firm then operating in Mumbai. Thus, the first ever attempt at flying in modern India, undertaken and made successful by an Indian, in a plane of Indian manufacture and built to Indian scientific specifications, slid into the limbo of oblivion.

(The writer can be contacted at

More on Mahabalipuram's Off-Shore City

INDIA, February 27, 205: Indian divers have found more evidence of an ancient port city, apparently revealed by December's tsunami. Stone structures that are "clearly man-made" were seen on the seabed off the south coast, archaeologists say. They could be part of the ancient city of Mahabalipuram, about which legend says a flood engulfed six of its seven temples. Other relics were revealed when the powerful waves washed away sand as they smashed into the Tamil Nadu coast. The Archaeological Survey of India launched the diving expedition after residents reported seeing a temple and other structures as the sea pulled back just before the tsunami hit. The new finds were made close to the 7th Century beach-front Mahabalipuram temple. "We've found some stone structures which are clearly man-made," expedition leader Alok Tripathi told the AFP news agency. "They're perfect rectangular blocks, arranged in a clear pattern." The ancient "gifts" of the tsunami are expected to be presented to an international seminar on maritime archaeology in Delhi next month. Other discoveries made at Mahabalipuram earlier this month include a granite lion of a similar age to the temple that experts believe had been buried for centuries before the tsunami shifted the sand. Archaeologists have been working at the site for the last three years, since another diving expedition discovered what appeared to be a submerged city, including at least one temple.

hinduism today

Historian deSouza on the Goa Inquisition

Dr. T. R. de Souza

"At least from 1540 onwards, and in the island of Goa before that year, all the Hindu idols had been annihilated or had disappeared, all the temples had been destroyed and their sites and building material was in most cases utilized to erect new Christian Churches  and chapels. Various viceregal and Church council decrees banished the Hindu priests from the Portuguese territories; the public practices of Hindu rites including marriage rites, were banned; the state took upon itself the task of bringing up Hindu orphan children; the Hindus were denied certain employments, while the Christians were preferred; it was ensured that the Hindus would not harass those who became Christians, and on the contrary, the Hindus were obliged to assemble periodically in Churches to listen to  preaching or to the refutation of their religion.\"

"A particularly grave abuse was practiced in Goa in the form of \'mass baptism\' and what went before it. The practice was begun by the Jesuits and was alter initiated by the Franciscans also. The Jesuits staged an annual mass baptism on the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul (January 25), and in order to secure as many neophytes as possible, a few days before the ceremony the Jesuits would go through the streets of the Hindu quarter in pairs, accompanied by their Negro slaves, whom they would urge to seize the Hindus. When the blacks caught up a fugitive, they would smear his lips with a piece of beef, making him an \'untouchable\' among his people. Conversion to Christianity was then his only option.\"

 The Goan inquisition is regarded by all contemporary portrayals as the most violent inquisition ever executed by the Portuguese  Catholic Church. It lasted from 1560 to 1812. The inquisition was set as a tribunal, headed by a judge, sent to Goa from Portugal and was assisted by two judicial henchmen. The judge was answerable to no one except to Lisbon and handed down punishments as he saw fit. The Inquisition Laws filled 230 pages and the palace where the Inquisition was conducted was known as the Big House and the Inquisition proceedings were always conducted behind closed shutters and closed doors. The screams of agony of the culprits (men, women, and children) could be heard in the streets, in the stillness of the night, as they were brutally interrogated, flogged, and slowly dismembered in front of their relatives. Eyelids were sliced off and extremities were amputated carefully, a person could remain conscious even though the only thing that remained was his torso and a ! head.

 Diago de Boarda, a priest and his advisor Vicar General, Miguel Vazz had made a 41 point plan for torturing Hindus. Under this plan Viceroy Antano de Noronha issued in 1566, an order applicable to the entire area under Portuguese rule :

"I hereby order that in any area owned by my master, the king, nobody should construct a Hindu temple and such temples already constructed should not be repaired without my permission. If this order is transgressed, such temples shall be, destroyed and the goods in them shall be used to meet expenses of holy deeds, as punishment of such transgression.\"

 In 1567 the campaign of destroying temples in Bardez met with success. At the end of it 300 Hindu temples were destroyed. Enacting laws, prohibition was laid from December 4, 1567 on rituals of Hindu marriages, sacred thread wearing and cremation. All the persons above 15 years of age were compelled to listen to Christian preaching, failing which they were punished.

 A religious fatva was issued on the basis of the findings of Goa Inquiry Commission. It stated,\"...Hereby we declare the decision that the conventions mentioned in the preamble of the fatva as stated below are permanently declared as useless, and therefore  prohibited\".

Prohibitions Regarding Marriages

* The instruments for Hindu songs shall not be played.

* While giving dowry the relatives of the bride and groom must not be invited.

* At the time of marriage, betel leaf packages (pan) must not be distributed either publicly or in private to the persons present.

* Flowers, or fried puris, betel nuts and leaves must not be sent to the heads of the houses of the bride or groom.

* Gotraj ceremony of family God must not be performed.

* On the day prior to a wedding, rice must not be husked, spices must not be pounded, grains must not be ground and other recipes for marriage feast must not be cooked.

* Pandals and festoons must not be used.

* Pithi should not be applied.

* The bride must not be accorded ceremonial welcome. The bride and groom must not be made to sit under pandal to convey  blessings and best wishes to them.

Prohibitions Regarding Fasts, Post-death Rituals

* The poor must not be fed or ceremonial meals must not be served for the peace of the souls of the dead.

* There should be no fasting on ekadashi day.

* Fasting can be done according to the Christian principles.

* No rituals should be performed on the twelfth day after death, on moonless and full moon dates.

*No fasting should be done during lunar eclipse.


* Hindu men should not wear dhoti either in public or in their houses. Women should not wear cholis .

* They should not plant Tulsi in their houses, compounds, gardens or any other place.

Following the law of 1567, orphans were kidnapped for converting them to Christianity.

On September 22, 1570 an order was issued that :

* The Hindus embracing Christianity will be exempted from land taxes for a period of 15 years.

* Nobody shall bear Hindu names or surnames.

In 1583 Hindu temples at Esolna and Kankolim were destroyed through army action.

"The fathers of the Church forbade the Hindus under terrible penalties the use of their own sacred books, and prevented them from all exercise of their religion. They destroyed their temples, and so harassed and interfered with the people that they abandoned the city in large numbers, refusing to remain any longer in a place where they had no liberty, and were liable to imprisonment, torture and death if they worshipped after their own fashion the gods of their fathers.\" wrote  Sasetti, who was in India from 1578 to 1588.

An order was issued in June 1684 eliminating Konkani language and making it compulsory to speak Portuguese language. The law
 provided for dealing toughly with anyone using the local language. Following that law all the symbols of non-Christian sects were destroyed and the books written in local languages were burnt.

The Archbishop living on the banks of the Ethora had said during one of his lecture series, \"The post of Inquiry Commission in Goa is regarded as holy.\" The women who opposed the assistants of the commission were put behind the bars and were used by them to satisfy their animal instincts. Then they were burnt alive as opponents of the established tenets of the Catholic church.

The victims of such inhuman laws of the Inquiry Commission included a French traveller named Delone. He was an eye witness to the atrocities, cruelty and reign of terror unleashed by priests. He published a book in 1687 describing the lot of helpless victims. While he was in jail he had heard the cries of tortured people beaten with instruments having sharp teeth. All these details are noted in Delone\'s book.

So harsh and notorious was the inquisition in Goa, that word of its brutality and horrors reached Lisbon but nothing was done to stop this notoriety and escalating barbarity and it continued for two hundred more years. No body knows the exact number of Goans  subjected to these diabolical tortures, but perhaps it runs into hundreds of thousands, may be even more. The abominations of inquisitions continued until a brief respite was given in 1774 but four years later, the inquisition was introduced again and it continued un-interruptedly until 1812. At that point in time, in the year of 1812, the British put pressure on the Portuguese to put an end to the terror of Inquisition and the presence of British troops in Goa enforced the British desire. Also the Portuguese power at this time was
 declining and they could not fight the British. The palace of the Grand Inquisitor, the Big House, was demolished and no trace of it remains today, which might remind someone of inquisitions a! nd the horrors inside this Big House that their great saint Francis Xavier had commenced.

Dr. Trasta Breganka Kunha, a Catholic citizen of Goa writes, "Inspite of all the mutilations and concealment of history, it remains an undoubted fact that religious conversion of Goans is due to methods of force adopted by the Portuguese to establish their rule. As a
 result of this violence the character of our people was destroyed. The propagation of Christian sect in Goa came about not by religious preaching but through the methods of violence and pressure. If any evidence is needed for this fact, we can obtain it through law books, orders and reports of the local rulers of that time and also from the most dependable documents of the Christian sect.â€?

Finding Sri Krishna`s Dwarka

Posted October 04, 2005

Oct 4, Ahmedabad (THE HINDU) — Giving a totally new twist to the location of Lord Krishna's birthplace Dwarka, satellite pictures taken by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) have indicated that Dwarka did not exist in Jamnagar as the historians believe but in Junagadh district of Gujarat.

A senior scientist with Space Application Centre of ISRO Dr P S Thakker, who has worked on this project, said "what is interesting is that the findings of ISRO corroborates what is mentioned in the Vedas and ancient Hindu scriptures about the geographical location of Dwaraka but contradicts what the archaeologists and modern historians say about the present Dwarka which they claim is in Jamnagar district of Gujarat."

Though the study was done by ISRO four years back it was confined to abstract papers in the dusty shelf of ISRO.

Satellite images can pinpoint things that are not visible to the naked eye. For example, it can indicate the presence of ruins of a city which has been long buried under the soil.

Thakker said there are nine sites in Gujarat which claim to be original Krishna's Dwarka.

Those sites are the holy town of modern Dwarka in Jamnagar district, Mul Dwarka near Kodinar in Junagadh district, Muli in Surendranagar district, Panch Dwaraka near Vankaner in Rajkot district, Bet Dwarka in Jamnagar district near Okha and a city believed to be submerged in the Great Rann of Kutch.

Another site which is claimant of Dwarka is Jima Durga in Junagadh district.

Descriptions of Krishna's Dwarka mentions presence of rivers, forests, mountains, gardens having colourful flowers in its environs. But the present day Dwarka, which exists in Jamnagar, doesn't match with the descriptions found in literature but matches perfectly with the images of satellite which was taken of Junagadh district, Thakker added.

He said the available literature indicates existence of two different Dwarkas at two different periods. One Dwarka was that of Vasudeva and the other was that of Krishna's.

Vasudev's Dwarka, which was submerged in the Arabian Sea about 3500 years ago, and Krishna's Dwarka were both located in Junagadh district near Prabhash Kshetra, according to Thakker.

In 1988, the sixth Marine Archaeological expedition of the National Oceanography, Goa led by Dr S R Rao, Emeritus Scientist, had discovered hitherto unknown features of a city in Jamnagar which Rao claimed to be Krishna's Dwarka.

The expedition carried out by Dr Rao had come across inner and outer gateways of the proto-historic port city flanked by circular bastions built of massive blocks of sandstone.

From the inner gateway, a flight of steps led to the Gomati river the submerged channel of which has been traced over a length of 1.5 km in the seabed.

However, Thakker claims this unknown feature of a city discovered by Rao could be any other city settled after 1 AD other than Krishna's Dwarka.

Tsunami reveals ancient temple sites
By Paddy Maguire
BBC News, Madras
Thursday, 27 October 2005

Layers of sea shells and debris point to previous tsunami strikes Archaeologists say they have discovered the site of an ancient temple in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

It is the latest in a series of archaeological discoveries in the area struck by December's tsunami, which desilted large areas of the coastline.

The brick temple dates back more than 2,000 years to the late Tamil Sangam period and was discovered on the beachfront near Saluvankuppam, just north of a famous World Heritage site at Mahabalipuram.

The discovery lends more weight to growing evidence that a huge tsunami hit the east coast of India during this period, obliterating large habitations along the coastline.

Two periods

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) made the discovery while looking for a 9th Century Pallava temple.

We are looking at the remains of a brick temple that was destroyed by a tsunami approximately 2,200 years ago

Badrinarayanan S, rtd director,
Geological Survey of India

"The tsunami exposed inscriptions on a huge rock that had previously been protected as a site of importance," said T Satyamurthy of the ASI.

"These inscriptions dated back to 935 AD and said that Krishna the Third, from the Rashtrakuda Dynasty in Karnataka, had given gold to a temple to pay for keeping an eternal flame alight.

"This led us to dig further. Near the surface we found coins, pottery, stucco figurines and bronze lamps and so we knew there must be something more. Soon we discovered the remains of the 9th century Pallava temple."

As they continued to excavate they came across the earlier Sangam temple. The distinctive shift from courses of brickwork to large granite slabs indicates the different periods.

"The Pallavas just built on the brick foundations left behind after the Sangam temple was levelled. The two periods are there, clear to see," said Dr Satyamurthy.

Tsunami deposits

But it is the question of how these two temples were destroyed rather than their age that has fired the interest of the teams involved.

Shift from brickwork to granite slabs indicates different periods Layers of sea shells and debris in the sand show that tsunami activity had twice levelled the temple complex.

"The Pallava structure was destroyed by waves some time in the 13th Century and evidence suggests that beneath it, we are looking at the remains of a brick temple that was destroyed by a tsunami approximately 2,200 years ago," said Badrinarayanan S, a retired director of the Geological Survey of India.

Another archaeologist from the ASI, G Thirumoorthy, said: "We can see these tsunami deposits in Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. We've found that devastation happened along about 1,200km (750 miles) of India's eastern coastline.

"The discovery of this Sangam temple will lead us to other geological sites along the coast and teach us more about the pre-Pallavan period."

Since the tsunami on 26 December, marine archaeologists have also discovered evidence of large structures on the seabed up to 1km out to sea.

They think the structures may be part of a former, legendary city of Mahabalipuram.

Myths state the city was destroyed by a flood sent by gods envious of its beauty.

Faulty Aryan Invasion Theory: fw by Ashok Chowgule

The Faulty Aryan Invasion theory

For a long time now this theory has systematically undermined Hinduism.

We request all Hindus to quote this article whenever they come across the Aryan Invasion theory.

Vivekananda Centre London

The Aryan Invasion Theory

One of the most controversial ideas about Hindu history is the Aryan invasion theory.

This theory, originally devised by F. Max Muller in 1848, traces the history of Hinduism to the invasion of India's indigenous people by lighter skinned Aryans around 1500 BCE.

The theory was reinforced by other research over the next 120 years, and became the accepted history of Hinduism, not only in the West but in India.

There is now ample evidence to show that Muller, and those who followed him, were wrong.

Why is the theory no longer accepted?
The Aryan invasion theory was based on archaeological, linguistic and ethnological evidence.

Later research has either discredited this evidence, or provided new evidence that combined with the earlier evidence makes other explanations more likely.

Modern historians of the area no longer believe that such invasions had such great influence on Indian history. It's now generally accepted that Indian history shows a continuity of progress from the earliest times to today.

The changes brought to India by other cultures are not denied by modern historians, but they are no longer thought to be a major ingredient in the development of Hinduism.

Dangers of the theory
The Aryan invasion theory denies the Indian origin of India's predominant culture, but gives the credit for Indian culture to invaders from elsewhere.

It even teaches that some of the most revered books of Hindu scripture are not actually Indian, and it devalues India's culture by portraying it as less ancient than it actually is.

The theory was not just wrong, it included unacceptably racist ideas:

    * it suggested that Indian culture was not a culture in its own right, but a synthesis of elements from other cultures
    * it implied that Hinduism was not an authentically Indian religion but the result of cultural imperialism
    * it suggested that Indian culture was static, and only changed under outside influences
    * it suggested that the dark-skinned Dravidian people of the South of India had got their faith from light-skinned Aryan invaders
    * it implied that indigenous people were incapable of creatively developing their faith
    * it suggested that indigenous peoples could only acquire new religious and cultural ideas from other races, by invasion or other processes
    * it accepted that race was a biologically based concept (rather than, at least in part, a social construct) that provided a sensible way of ranking people in a hierarchy, which provided a partial basis for the caste system
    * it provided a basis for racism in the Imperial context by suggesting that the peoples of Northern India were descended from invaders from Europe and so racially closer to the British Raj
    * it gave a historical precedent to justify the role and status of the British Raj, who could argue that they were transforming India for the better in the same way that the Aryans had done thousands of years earlier
    * it downgraded the intellectual status of India and its people by giving a falsely late date to elements of Indian science and culture

This site shows many places of interest, but hails to the western propagandist idea of the cultural origins. Very informative site, but only from a tourist point of view, there's no true cultural heritage revealed here:

India's World Heritage Sites

Ancient Historical monuments  of India are pieces of its heritage. Historical centres, buildings like forts, temples, palaces of India make it (India) an irresistible travel destination. Spending vacation in India, travelling the length and breadth of this vast landmass an experience unparalleled.

Through the ages - passing the Vedic, the Mauryan & Gupta periods, thereafter, the Muslims followed by the Europeans, the history and culture of the vast subcontinent got enriched. Elements of all the people, races and religious were assimilated transformed and enliven. Together came their forts, temples, palaces, gardens - all providing India with some fabulous holiday destinations and making travelling in India a real joy.

India, beyond doubt, is the melting pot of various faith and creed. Given its historical and cultural richness, the whole country appears to be a Heritage site. Innumerable historical monuments, forts, palaces, churches, caves, tombs, mosques, temples gurudwaras and allied structures of various reigning powers and antiquity are spread all over the land. The masterpiece of Taj Mahal, the Fort, of Agra, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan etc, palaces spread from Delhi to West Bengal and deep down the south, caves of Ajanta and Ellora caves, the temples of Khajuraho and Konark besides numerous others in northern and southern India, the gurudwaras at Delhi, Amritsar or Patna, the churches of Goa and Kerala, not to mention those in the other parts of the country - the list goes on and on .

From Rajgriha, Nalanda and Bodh Gaya in the east to the Elephanta Caves in Maharashtra and from Vaishnodevi temple in Jammu to the Jewish Synagogue at Cochin (in Kerela), the country is a 'heritage delight'. The Buddhist stupa (structure) of Sanchi and Hampi are as alluring as the Sun Temple of Konark and temples at Mamallapuram and Brihadisvara. The Goan Churches, the Sikh gurudwaras, the Jewish Synagogues - all exemplify the spirit of unity and diversity pervading the country. Be it the Mughal forts, palaces and other structures of Fatehpur Sikri and Agra, Humayun's Tomb or a mixed effort like the old Fort at Delhi, the history and heritage is spread everywhere, providing tourism in India tremendous potential. Historical heritage is part and parcel of Indian life as much as Velha (Goa), near Victoria Memorial in Kolkatta (Calcutta), Nalanda in Bihar, Badrinath in Uttar Pradesh, Salim Chisti's Tomb at Fatehpur Sikri, India Gate at Delhi and Gateway of India in Mumbai.

Given the historical heritage in the shapes of monuments, their ruins, buildings, temples, forts, palaces, churches, mosques and gurudwaras, holidays in India is virtually travelling in historical paradise - living/ witnessing so many civilizations in one life. So the next time you think of holidays, planning for your vacation, do remember the heritage sites of India. You would not find more and better travelmasti elsewhere?

India and its ancient Flying Culture - Vimanas

Our website contains the information of  the temples of India of different religion. We are providing all the useful information of holy places of India.

For more details of Indian Temples, kindly visit our website page

City Under the Sea

B.K. Parthasarathy –a freelance writer based in Chennai - .writes about a spectacular underwater archaeological find by a joint British-Indian diving team that could rewrite history. B.K. Parthasarathy (10-17-02)

Who would have thought a city that could be older than the Harappan civilization could be lying beneath water right off the coast of Mahabalipuram? Sometimes, it pays to listen to the stories of humble fishermen. Local fishermen in the coast of Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu have for centuries believed in that a great flood consumed a city over 1,000 years ago in a single day when the gods grew jealous of its beauty.

The myths of Mahabalipuram were written down by British traveler J. Goldingham, who visited the town in 1798, at which time it was known to sailors as the Seven Pagodas. Legend had it that six temples were submerged beneath the waves, with the seventh temple still standing on the seashore.

Best-selling British author and television presenter Graham Hancock took these stories seriously. The hypothesis that there may be ruins underwater off the coast of Mahabalipuram has been around at least since the eighteenth century among scholarly circles. “I have long regarded Mahabalipuram, because of its flood myths and fishermen’s sightings as a very likely place in which discoveries of underwater structures could be made, and I proposed that a diving expedition should be undertaken there,” said Hancock.

Hancock’s initiative resulted in the Dorset, England-based Scientific Exploration Society and India’s National Institute of Oceanography joining hands. In April this year, the team made a spectacular discovery.  The SES announced: “A joint expedition of 25 divers from the Scientific Exploration Society and India’s National Institute of Oceanography led by Monty Halls and accompanied by Graham Hancock, have discovered an extensive area with a series of structures that clearly show man made attributes, at a depth of 5-7 meters offshore of Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu.

“The scale of the submerged ruins, covering several square miles and at distances of up to a mile from shore, ranks this as a major marine-archaeological discovery as spectacular as the ruined cities submerged off Alexandria in Egypt.”

India’s NIO said in a statement: “A team of underwater archaeologists from National Institute of Oceanography NIO have successfully `unearthed’ evidence of submerged structures off Mahabalipuram and established first-ever proof of the popular belief that the Shore temple of Mahabalipuram is the remnant of series of total seven of such temples built that have been submerged in succession. The discovery was made during a joint underwater exploration with the Scientific Exploration Society, U.K.”

NIO said:

Underwater investigations were carried out at 5 locations in the 5 – 8 m water depths, 500 to 700 m off Shore temple.
Investigations at each location have shown presence of the construction of stone masonry, remains of walls, a big square rock cut remains, scattered square and rectangular stone blocks, big platform leading the steps to it amidst of the geological formations of the rocks that occur locally.
Most of the structures are badly damaged and scattered in a vast area, having biological growth of barnacles, mussels and other organisms.
The construction pattern and area, about 100m X 50m, appears to be same at each location. The actual area covered by ruins may extend well beyond the explored locations.
The possible date of the ruins may be 1500-1200 years BP. Pallava dynasty, ruling the area during the period, has constructed many such rock cut and structural temples in Mahabalipuram and Kanchipuram.  The last claim is questioned by Hancock, who says a scientist has told him it could be 6,000 years old.
Durham University geologist Glenn Milne told him in an e-mail: “I had a chat with some of my colleagues here in the dept. of geological sciences and it is probably reasonable to assume that there has been very little vertical tectonic motion in this region [i.e. the coastal region around Mahabalipuram] during the past five thousand years or so. Therefore, the dominant process driving sea-level change will have been due to the melting of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. Looking at predictions from a computer model of this process suggests that the area where the structures exist would have been submerged around six thousand years ago. Of course, there is some uncertainty in the model predictions and so there is a flexibility of roughly plus or minus one thousand years is this date.”

If that were true, it would be a spectacular development. Previous archaeological opinion recognizes no culture in India 6,000 years ago capable of building anything much. Hancock says this discovery proves scientists should be more open-minded. “I have argued for many years that the world’s flood myths deserve to be taken seriously, a view that most Western academics reject. “But here in Mahabalipuram, we have proved the myths right and the academics wrong.”

Hancock believes far more research needs to be done on underwater relics.
“Between 17,000 years ago and 7000 years ago, at the end of the last Ice Age, terrible things happened to the world our ancestors lived in,” he says. “Great ice caps over northern Europe and north America melted down, huge floods ripped across the earth, sea-level rose by more than 100 meters, and about 25 million square kilometers of formerly habitable lands were swallowed up by the waves.

“Marine archaeology has been possible as a scholarly discipline for about 50 years — since the introduction of scuba. In that time, according to Nick Flemming, the doyen of British marine archaeology, only 500 submerged sites have been found worldwide containing the remains of any form of man-made structure or of lithic artifacts. Of these sites only 100 — that’s 100 in the whole world! — are more than 3000 years old.”

Hancock, who was understandably resentful about the NIO’s silence in his pivotal role in making the diving expedition happen — SES gave him full recognition — was himself quite generous about who deserved the greatest credit:

“Of course the real discoverers of this amazing and very extensive submerged site are the local fishermen of Mahabalipuram. My role was simply to take what they had to say seriously and to take the town’s powerful and distinctive flood myths seriously. Since no diving had ever been done to investigate these neglected myths and sightings I decided that a proper expedition had to be mounted. To this end, about a year ago, I brought together my friends at the Scientific Exploration Society in Britain and the National Institute of Oceanography in India and we embarked on the long process that has finally culminated in the discovery of a major and hitherto completely unknown submerged archaeological site.”

Interested readers can visit the following Web sites for more information. The Scientific Exploration Society’s Web site at
And Graham Hancock’s Web site at


See more on Dwarka and Mahabalipuram and Seven Pagodas HERE:

Scuba-dive and view Krishna's Dwarka:

[India News]: Ahmedabad, Feb 9 : People can now catch a glimpse of Lord Krishna's fabled underwater Dwarka city off the Gujarat coast.

An adventure sports company is launching scuba diving facilities near the pilgrimage town of Dwarka, 457 km here, which will enable the divers to glimpse the underwater "Bet Dwarka".

"It will be the first time in India and probably in the world where people can dive and see an ancient submerged city," Adventures Sports Limited marketing executive S.K. Singh told IANS.

The city-based Adventure Sports will sign a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the state government Thursday.

The MoU proposes two projects at an estimated cost of Rs. 130 million. Apart from Bet Dwarka, the firm will also offer scuba diving facilities at Marine National Park, near Jamnagar, 313 km from here.

"The feasibility study of the Jamnagar project is awaited," Singh said.

Lord Krishna's Bet Dwarka was long believed to exist only in the realm of mythology, before the Archeological Survey of India (ASI) conclusively proved its existence on the basis of underwater findings.

The adventure sports firm will provide the necessary scuba diving equipment as well training, if required, to participants as part of packages of varying durations.

The facilities, to be made available by March, will be based at Ajod island, 13 km off the main coast. Lodging and boarding facilities will be provided at the island.

The project will work both as a training and certification centre and as a diving facility centre.

"Apart from scuba diving enthusiasts, families coming to Dwarka for pilgrimage too will be interested as the underwater "Bet Dwarka" has religious significance," Singh said.

The sports firm's divers will also protect the ecology and archaeology of the place.

Indo-Asian News Service

See more about Dwarka HERE
Marine archaeology or underwater archaeology is a new and exciting kind of archaeology that is becoming important in many parts of the world...
by Upinder Singh

Dwarka remains may soon be protected as underwater world cultural heritage site

NEW DELHI, JULY 13: Old shipwrecks -- like that of the Titanic -- which have been lying buried under the sea with their precious treasure along with the submerged city of Dwarka off the Gujarat coast, for centuries, could soon vie for the status of an underwater world cultural heritage site.

Over 200 experts from 84 countries, who gathered under the aegis of UNESCO in Paris recently to examine a draft convention on the issue, unanimously agreed that underwater cultural heritage was in urgent need of protection from destruction and pillaging.

Currently, structures or properties lying under water can not claim the status of cultural heritage. The absence of any protective mechanism has left them open to pillaging and destruction by treasure hunters and curious deep-sea divers. The experts agreed that the definition of cultural heritage needed to be expanded in order to protect underwater heritage as well.

The submerged city of Dwarka is believed to be an important site having both historical and cultural value for India. Legend has it that the remains -- the wall of a city is clearly visible while the rest is yet to be discovered -- are in fact, that of the ancient city of Dwarka mentioned in stories of Lord Krishna.

Read full story here:

Archeological Society of India Says Temple Existed at Ramjanmabhoomi

LUCKNOW, INDIA, August 25, 2003: The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) said a temple-like "massive structure" existed beneath the disputed site in Ayodhya in its 574-page report. The ASI report, submitted on August 22, was opened by the three-member Full Bench, comprising Justice SR Alam, Justice Khem Karan and Justice Bhanwar Singh on Monday. The bench has given six-week time to contesting parties for filing their objections on the sensational revelations made by the ASI in its two-volume report. "Viewing in totality and taking into account the archaeological evidence of a massive structure just below the disputed structure and evidence of continuity in structural phases from the tenth century onwards up to the construction of the disputed structure along with yield of stone and decorated bricks as well mutilated sculpture of divine couple...., fifty pillar bases in association of the huge structure, are indicative of remains which are distinctive features found associated with the temples of north India," concluded the ASI in its report. The ASI team, led by Hari Manjhi and B R Mani, had excavated the disputed site for nearly five months between March 12 and August 7 2003 on the March 5 order of the High Court. In its report on the famous excavations, the ASI has dwelt at length the period from circa 1000 BCE to 300 BCE and from Sunga (first century BCE) to Kushan, Gupta, Post-Gupta up to Medieval Sultanate level (12-16 century CE). The ASI report mentions a huge structure (11-12th century) on which a massive structure, having a huge pillared hall (or two halls), with at least three structural phases and three successive floors attached with it was constructed later on. "There is sufficient proof of existence of a massive and monumental structure having a minimum of 50 x 30 meter in north-south and east-west directions respectively just below the disputed structure," states the report.

To prove its point, the report says that during the course of digging, nearly 50 pillar bases with brickbat foundation, below calcrete blocks topped by sandstones were found. It also suggests that the center of the central chamber of the disputed structure falls just over the central point of the length of the massive wall of the preceding period which could not be excavated due to presence of Ram Lala at the spot in the makeshift structure. Significantly, the ASI report did not give any weightage to the glazed wares, graves and skeletons of animals and human beings found during the excavations. Rather it suggests that the glazed tiles were used in the construction of original disputed structure. Similarly, the celadon and porcelain shards and animal bones, skeletons recovered from trenches in northern and southern areas belong to late and post-Mughal period, it adds. In drafting its report, the ASI has also given importance to the carbon dating to ascertain the period of soil and artefacts found during digging. About the habitation around the disputed ground, the ASI report observed that "below the disputed site remained a place for public use for a long time till the Mughal period when the disputed structure was built which was confined to a limited area and population settled around it as evidenced by the increase in contemporary archaeological material, including pottery."

The ASI report has come as a rude shock to the Sunni Central Wakf Board and other Muslim organisations. "It is baseless, misinterpreted, based on wrong facts and drafted under intense political pressure," reacted Jafrayab Jilani, counsel for SCWB while announcing that they will challenge the report.

Courtesy of

Sun, 24 Nov 2002 19:36:53 +0530
   From: "sanjeev nayyar" <>
Subject: divide rule

Divide and Convert; Divide and Rule
The Rediff Special / Michel Danino

Majestic, fluid, quietly mighty! In many ways, the waters of the Brahmaputra encapsulate the North-East. We saw them only late October, after their summer fury had abated yet the great river's beauty still fills our eyes. Cutting open the Himalayas, bringing life and fertility to this huge valley, and providing a gateway to the rest of India, how hard it has worked through the ages.

On its banks stands the Vivekananda Kendra Institute of Culture, our first halt in Guwahati. Buzzing with activity, among other things it conducts considerable research and documentation on the North-East's ancient cultures and traditions. I had the honour of delivering there the Bhubaneswar Bharthakur Memorial

Lecture, on the theme of The Invasion That Never Was; with the help of slides I presented recent archaeological and cultural evidence to show the falsity of the divisive nineteenth-century Aryan invasion theory -- a theory which, as we discovered a few days later, is still much misused in the North-East in order to convince tribals that they have no connection with Indian "Aryan" culture, no identity of their own, and would therefore be better off embracing Christianity.

Missionaries and others who have recourse to such perverse arguments really belong to the colonial dark ages -- for massive evidence from archaeology, anthropology and other sciences, piling up in recent decades, has thoroughly disproved the theory of an Aryan invasion of India. It simply never took place, nor was there ever any Aryan race or any Dravidian race. It is time these crude and unscientific distortions of India's past are laid to rest forever; they have done enough harm to the Indian people as it is. Do we really have to blindly perpetuate colonial myths in this 'scientific era'?

Science was also the topic of a talk and slideshow I gave at the Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, about India's scientific heritage, highlighting some of the early -- and pioneering -- developments in mathematics and astronomy in ancient India.

Back in the city, this was followed by a well-attended public lecture organized by the Bharat Vikas Parishad, on the theme 'Is Indian Culture Obsolete?'

Focusing on some essential roots of Indian culture, I explained why, in my view,the answer to this question can only be in the negative, and why India still has much to contribute to the world - perhaps even more today than in the past.

The next day took us to the Kamakhya temple with its impressive underground garbha griha. We also enjoyed the sweeping view of the city from atop the Nilachal Hill, near the quiet Bhubaneswari shrine. After a flight to Dibrugarh, we left eastern Assam through Marguerita, braving the roads with a four-wheel drive jeep and an expert driver -- but "road" is too noble a term for these endless series of bottomless potholes and gaping mudpits, eloquent and back-breaking testimonies of State neglect. It was a relief to enter Arunachal Pradesh, where we remained at foothill level for a few days, during a teachers' orientation camp organized by the Vivekananda Kendra. This spiritually-oriented service organization based at Kanyakumari is well known in Assam and Arunachal for its 25 excellent schools and numerous balwadis.

History and culture were the central themes of the five-day camp -- and so the many distortions Indian history remains burdened with, from Harappan to colonial times. Again we touched on the discarded yet still widespread Aryan invasion theory, the many features of the Harappan civilizations that have survived to this day, the grossly unscientific race concept (still in vogue with our professional division-walas), the essential continuity of Indian civilization, also how the organic, polymorphic, assimilative, integrating entity called "Indian culture" succeeded in cementing the subcontinent, giving to, but also taking from, regional and tribal sub-cultures, without ever imposing itself on anyone....

We talked of science and technology, ecological heritage, the caste system, India's considerable and always peaceful contributions to world culture, but also how to make the teaching of history more living and relevant to a student.

India has so much rich history -- tragedies but also achievements, wars but also peaceful expansions, advances in art, science, literature -- yet few countries have been so clumsy in projecting their heritage to their younger generations. A look at the drab and sad textbooks in use in various parts of the country is enough to put one off learning history, not to speak of the heavy ideological biases they often inflict on Indian students; Marxist historians have long been past masters at this game, which is why they are so loud against any attempt to alter their misrepresentations and provide a fair, ungilded, and unmuddied perspective of Indian civilization.

A few public programmes -- at Kharsang, Jairampur, Marguerita and Changlang -- brought into sharp focus some of those misrepresentations, together with the racial biases introduced by colonial scholars. Often, following my positive projection of Indian culture -- which evoked surprise, so deep the habit of self-denigration has gone -- there would be the usual objections: but look at the perverse caste system, look at the imposition of Aryan culture on the Dravidians, on the tribals, note how this region never had any links with India, was always separate culturally, linguistically, racially, see how Hinduism is now trying to convert the tribals....

It was not too hard to guess that most of the questioners were devout Christians or recent converts. Nor was it hard to show the incurable ignorance all such statements were founded on. For instance, the fact that the North-East, repeatedly mentioned in the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, in Kautilya or Kalidasa, and of course in several Puranas, was always regarded as just one of the regions of Bharat, a fact confirmed by the existence of tribal versions of the Epics, also by archaeological finds from the 4th Century AD onward of established Hindu and Buddhist settlements (I am sure that more systematic excavations would push those dates further back). Or again the falsity of the racial concept and the non-existence of any so-called Aryan or so-called Dravidian race.

Finally, the inherently non-aggressive nature of Hinduism, in contrast to the inherently aggressive nature of Christianity (recall the Pope's call for "a great harvest of faith from Asia" during his state visit to India; can we imagine a swami visiting the Vatican and calling for Christians to convert to Hinduism?).

So when my questioners, subtly or not so subtly, tried to paint Hinduism in a bad light, they found the spotlight on Christianity rather uncomfortable, especially when I pointed out that not a single pre-Christian culture or religion of ancient Europe was allowed to live, or that Christianity's essentially non-rational, unverifiable, dogmatic foundation was the cause for its virtual disappearance from the West, where more and more people are now turning to yoga, meditation (as in America), or (as in France) to Buddhism. Such debates have of course been taking place all over India, but it is distressing to see how they stick to obsolete theories, discarded misconceptions, and unjustifiable strategies of systematic conversion and division of society.

The last point was brought to us in sharp focus during our interactions with a few tribals of Arunachal, who voiced the same distress at the methods used to secure conversions to Christianity: not only monetary allurements, but psychological pressure on the sick, promises of cure upon conversion, pressures to rope in the rest of the family when the promises don't materialize, and finally to throw out of the family those who continue to "worship Satan". In fact some missionaries and Christian educational institutions openly refer to tribals, Hindus, and Buddhists as Satan ka bachcha [children of Satan] while Christians are Ishwar ka bachcha [children of God]. We heard several heart-rending tales of teenage boys or girls having been thus expelled from their families when they refused to convert, accused by their own parents of being "Satan". Converted families are then instructed not to have contacts with the non-Christians, as a result of which they refuse to take part in traditional harvests and other aspects of the community's collective life; the centuries-old harmonious working of the community suddenly becomes divided, and indeed division is a great way to secure conversions: "divide and convert",until you can "divide and rule".

That ultimate step is already visible in the militant movements of the North-East, most of which are rooted in Christian ideology. Witness the conversions the militants secure at  unpoint in remote villages at night, a fact asserted to us repeatedly. I remembered a Don Bosco father in Tamil Nadu telling me a few years ago how "tribes have no future within the Indian Union" and explaining why he was exhorting them "to take up guns". It all fell into place.

The real tragedy is perhaps not the devious methods used by Baptists or Catholics alike -- for, after all, the whole of Christian history is full of them and tainted in deep red. Rather it is the failure of the government to fulfil its primary duty of protecting from aggression peace-loving citizens and endangered communities and cultures. And the failure of educated Indians ("miseducated" would be more correct) to ably project the specific values of Indian culture, such as the oneness of humanity, the essential divinity of man, or the complete spiritual freedom to choose one's path towards the manifestation of that divinity -- values that are conspicuously absent from Abrahamic religions (notwithstanding the hollow slogan that "all religions preach the same truths": unfortunately they don't). Surely, one may be critical of a few aspects of Hinduism or Indian traditions; but to throw away a gem because some mud has stained it is plain ignorance.

The flight from Dibrugarh to Guwahati followed the Brahmaputra, whose hundred branches meandered lazily around countless islets. The Himalayas glistened to the north, a perfect line of white peaks hovering over the clouds and kissed by the setting sun. Yes, that which has its roots beyond time cannot die. That which has countless forms will always be reborn.

French-born Michel Danino has been settled in Tamil Nadu for 25 years; he has given many lectures in India and is co-author of The Invasion That Never Was. He is also the convener of the International Forum for India's Heritage.

Date: Thu, 16 Sep 2004 12:20:29 -0000
   From: "vrnparker" <>
Subject: Dating Potsherds from Ancient Dwaraka

By Srinivasan Kalyanaraman <kalyan97@g...> wrote:
Thanks to Arun for the URL.

In Sangam literature, Patir-r-uppattu, there is a reference to Cera kings claiming their lineage of 42 generations from Dwaraka (Tuvarai). Mausala Parva of Mahabharata refers to the submergence of Dwaraka. If the Cera people are internal migrants from Dwaraka and if a generation is assumed to be an average of 25 years and if Sangam texts are dated to circa 1200 BCE, an additional 1050 years (i.e. 25X42) would take the submergence of Dwaraka to 2250 BCE, date consistent with the Sarasvati civilization sites and also consistent with the find of a s'ankha seal bearing typical sarasvati heiroglyphs (three-headed animals with heads of bull, one-horned heifer and antelope looking backwards).

So, some hypotheses which can be reframed for testing through historical studies:

Sarasvati people moved to the present-day Kerala, hugging the coastline of Sindhusa_gara after the desiccation of R. Sarasvati and submergence of Dwaraka.

Many bharatiya are sarasvats who were caught in the recurrent natural calamities caused by plate tectonics, resultant river migrations and raise in sea levels submerging the coastline regions of Bharat. So, we adore Krishna in Guruvayur and also in Puri, as Jagannath (as marine, riverine civilization people moved along the river Godavari eastwards). How else to explain the presence of the largest Vis.n.u mandiram in the world in Angkor Wat (Nagara Va_t.ika_), Kampuchea (Cambodia) but as a result of Bali ya_tra_ by these marine people called Bharatiya? We have to donate a ratha to Angkor Wat for starting a ratha ya_tra_ there like the juggernaut in Orissa to cherish the heritage of Krishna.

Krishna, like Sarasvati, was no legend. He, like Sarasvati, was a living reality.


Excerpts from URL reference:

Earlier studies on the onshore and inter-tidal zone explorations in Bet Dwarka island had revealed the presence of a large number of potsherds and other antiquities that correspond to the protohistoric (2000â€"1500 BC), historical (3rd century BC to 5th century AD) and medieval (8th century to 15th century AD) periods. Until the present time there has been a lack of absolute chronology. This study therefore attempts to address this deficiency. Accordingly, nine potsherds from four different sites of Bet Dwarka island were dated by thermolumine scence (TL). The ages obtained from site BDK-VI vary between 3870 and 2220 years BP; those from BDK-I vary between 3160 and 830 years BP; those from BDK-II vary between 1780 and 960 years BP, and those from Khuda Dost Dargah vary between 1240 and 880 years BP. When analysed on the basis of their locations, they are in conformity with the expected period. Interestingly, at site BDKVI and BDK-I a few potsherds, believed to be of protohistoric period, are apparently considerably more recent (2000 years BP), which may suggest the continuation of protohistoric habitation up to historical period at the same site. These TL ages assist in establishing a cultural sequence for Bet Dwarka island...


To some extent, the TL ages of the pottery from Bet Dwarka island here endorse the hypothesis on the cultural sequence of Bet Dwarka island established earlier. Accordingly, habitation record at the island begins from protohistoric period (4000 years BP) to medieval period (500 years BP). When seen in conjunction with other finds from the island, i.e. seal inscriptions, large number of anchors, shell working sites, etc., we can suggest that the island of Bet Dwarka was an important active port since ancient times and remained in the limelight for a long time. Bet Dwarka has provided a continuous habitation, which suggests that this island played a vital role in maritime activities since Harappan times. The apparent continuation of the protohistoric pottery into the historical period needs careful study. When confirmed, this will help in unravelling the problem of Okhamandal archaeology, and these present TL ages will provide the initial evidence for a solution to this conundrum. Cultural sequence of Bet Dwarka island based on thermoluminescence dating K. H. Vora*, A. S. Gaur*,†, David Price‡ and Sundaresh* *National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India ‡Thermoluminescence Dating Laboratory, School of Geosciences, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia

Dispute on Taj Mahal

A R Bhatnagar

The Moghul Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal built the Taj Mahal. It was built in 22 years (1631 to 1653) by 20,000 artisans brought to India from all over the world. Many people believe Ustad Isa of Iran designed it." This is what your guide probably told you if you ever visited the Taj Mahal. This is the same story I read in my history book as a student in India.No one has ever challenged it except Professor P.N.Oak, who believes the whole world has been duped. In his book Taj Mahal: The True Story, Oak says the Taj Mahal is not Queen Mumtaz Mahal's tomb but an ancient Hindu temple palace of Lord Shiva (then known as Tejo Mahalaya).
In the course of his research, Oak discovered the Shiva temple palace was usurped by Shah Jahan from then Maharaja of Jaipur, Jai Singh. Shah Jahan then remodeled the palace into his wife's memorial. In his own court chronicle, Badshahnama, Shah Jahan admits that an exceptionally beautiful grand mansion in Agra was taken from Jai Singh for Mumtaz's burial. The ex-Maharaja of Jaipur still retains in his secret collection two orders from Shah Jahan for surrendering the Taj building. Using captured temples and mansions, as a burial place for dead courtiers and royalty was a common practice among Muslim rulers. For example, Humayun, Akbar, Etmud-ud-Daula and Safdarjung are all buried in such mansions. Oak's inquiries begin with the name Taj Mahal. He says this term does not occur in any Moghul court papers or chronicles, even after ShahJahan's time. The term "Mahal" has never been used for a building in any of the Muslim countries, from Afghanistan to Algeria. "The unusual explanation that the term Taj Mahal derives from Mumtaz Mahal is illogical in at least two respects.Firstly, her name was never Mumtaz Mahal but Mumtaz-ul-Zamani," he writes. "Secondly, one cannot omit the first three letters 'Mum' from a woman's name to derive the remainder as the name for the building." Taj Mahal, he claims, is a corrupt version of Tejo-Mahalaya, or the Shiva's Palace.

Oak also says the love story of Mumtaz and Shah Jahan is a fairy tale created court sycophants, blundering historians and sloppy archaeologists. Not a single royal chronicle of Shah Jahan's time corroborates the love story. Furthermore, Oak cites several documents suggesting the Taj Mahal predates Shah Jahan's era, and was a temple palace dedicated to Shiva worshipped by the Rajputs of Agra city. For example, Professor Marvin Miller of New York took a few samples from the riverside doorway of the Taj. Carbon dating tests revealed that the door was 300 years older than Shah Jahan. European traveler Johan Albert andelslo, who visited Agra in 1638(only seven years after Mumtaz's death), describes the life of the city in his memoirs. But he makes no reference to the Taj Mahal being built.
The writings of Peter Mundy, an English visitor to Agra within a year of Mumtaz's death, also suggest the Taj was a noteworthy building long well before Shah Jahan's time. Oak points out a number of design and architectural inconsistencies that support the belief of the Taj Mahal being a typical Hindu temple rather than a mausoleum.Many rooms in the Taj Mahal have remained sealed since Shah Jahan's time, and are still inaccessible to the public.
Oak asserts they contain a headless statue of Shiva and other objects commonly used for worship rituals in Hindu temples. Fearing political backlash, Indira Gandhi's government tried to have Oak's book withdrawn from the bookstores, and threatened the Indian publisher of the first edition with dire consequences. There is only one way to discredit or validate Oak's research. The current Indian government should open the sealed rooms of the Taj Mahal under UN supervision, and let international experts investigate.

Historian Defends New NCERT Books


NEW DELHI, INDIA, November 23, 2002: Eminent historian and archaeologist, Professor B. B. Lal has dismissed as baseless the allegations of misrepresenting history in the new history text books for class XI at a lecture organized by the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT). He claimed that for some time, four myths had been perpetuated, obscuring India's past. These are the Aryan invasion of India, the Harappans being Dravidian-speaking people, the Rigvedic Saraswati being the same as the Helmand of Afghanistan and the extinction of Harappan culture. The attempt to correct these myths in new history books has been criticized by some historians as a distortion and misrepresentation of ancient Indian history. Prof. Lal, supplementing his talk with evidence from recent discoveries, said the Vedas were erroneously dated back to 1200 BCE by German scholar Max Mueller. The Vedas include many references to the river Saraswati, which had dried up before 2000 BCE, therefore the time of Vedas has to be before 2000 BCE. The Harappan civilization itself was found dating back to fifth millennium BCE. Prof. Lal explained that since there were no Harappan sites in South India nor were Dravidian sites found in North India, it was a myth that the Harappans were pushed down South.

Subject: Key to Aryan Invasion Theory and Vedic Letters.

It seems whoever adviced these letters presented information mined from the Vaishnava Bhakti Shastras avoiding all theistic implications, and concentrated on the cycles of time, and the progenitors (manus) of the Earthly human race, during various yugas or ages. The "Mahatmas" misrepresented the Vaishnava doctrines of the Earth yugas / ages and Manus as having something to do with their contemporary Aryanist idea of different human races and esoteric karmic evolutionary theory. They edited-out the Supreme Godhead from these scriptures, and appropriated created a mega-myth promoting an imagined aryan race as the current epitome of human evolution. Of course the Mahatmas' teachings were ultimately revealed to the world through H.P. Blavatsky, but there were some differences between what she wrote in the Mahatma letters 1880-1884, and what she wrote in the Secret Doctrine, first published in 1888.

Something interesting happened between the days of the early Mahatma Letters, and the publication of the SECRET DOCTRINE in 1888. The already complex hodge-podge of secret doctrine / esoteric Eastern teachings in the Mahatma Letters shows an evolution from the principally voidist Buddhist perspective in 1880 to a much-more developed Vaishnava Puranic set of teachings in the SECRET DOCTRINE published in 1888. Whereas the brahmins and their "shasters" are held in contempt by the Mahatmas in their Letters, in HPB's Secret Doctrine they are credited with possessing the highest knowledge. It is the Smarta Brahmins the Aryanist birth-caste and Advaita Vedanta atheists who are admired in the Secret Doctrine.

Maybe HPB and friends' near alliance with some branch of a Mayavadi Sampradaya from Adi Sankaracarya, had something to do with the glorification of their brahmin Advaita Vedanta in the Secret Doctrine. However while extolling the virtues of the wise Mayavadi (impersonalist ) initiate brahmins, the Secret Doctrine quite overtly refers to the Vaishnava Puranas and other Sanskrit Krishna-Vishnu centric Scriptures.

However HPB seems to have increasingly become conflicted over trying to reconcile theistic-and-atheistic, Mahayana-and-Theravadin, transcendental-personal-and-material-impersonal, incarnational-and-iconoclastic 'wisdom' teachings. Thus, contradictions concerning these subjects abound everywhere in the Secret Doctrine.

The Stanzas of Dzyan, which the Secret Doctrine is supposedly a translation of, and commentary on, are explained from the Eastern perspective largely by HPB's detailed references to the Vaishnava Scriptures. One would think that this would win points with the Vaishnava Sampradayas (lineages), which would then support HPB's Theosophical mission ?

As for the Mayavadis' perspective regarding the Secret Doctrine, they would have been as equally offended by HPB's compromise and distortions of their teachings, which is probably why Subba Row and the Sankarites renounced their association with HPB and Theosophy.

HPB's bold and amazing synthesis was an attempt to dissolve two historically incompatible (theistic-personal versus atheistic-impersonal) adversarial thought-systems into a stabile third emulsion / substance. Because her perception of the historical reality was erroneous, she could not understand that it would never work. In her imagination, the hidden inner wisdom of the Bhakti Puranas, the Advaita Vedanta of the Sankarites and the anatta voidist wisdom of the Theravada Buddhists were all the same thing. ln reality these were not at all the same thing, and could not be successfully mixed together.

Like HPB, Olcott and other Theosophists, post-New Agers today commonly think of modern Hindu Advaita Vedanta and Theravadin Buddhist voidism as the same thing or at least compatible, but the fact is that historically there was a great contest between these two traditions of thought, during the time of Adi Sankaracarya. When Adi Sankaracarya (788-820 AD) first systematized his doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, it was somewhat in response to Theravadin Buddhism's influence in India. The Vaishnava perspective on this is that against the no-self and ultimate void (emptiness) doctrine of the Theravadin Buddhists, Sankaracarya asserted the existence of a single Self, or Plenum / Purnam / Full 'Ground of Being'. The Plenum (Krishna-Vishnu as the PURNAM of Isopanishad) was Brahman, and Brahman was identical to Atman. Thus if the Brahman was one, then Atman had to be one as well. In the system passed-on by Sankaracarya's disciples heading the Four Peets (lineages), there was a failure to distinguish between the PARAM-ATMAN, or Supreme Self and the JIV-ATMA, or finite self. Thus when the Mayavadis, as the Vaishnavas called them, identifying jivatman as Brahman, reinterpreted the Vedic-Vaishnava, Shaivite and Devi Bhakti Scriptures, they used 'esoteric' readings the theism from these texts. They wrote there was a form of moksha in which the jivatma merges into the impersonal Brahman, yet deviated from the Bhakti Traditions in teaching that there was no other or higher experience of God and Self than that of the impersonal-merging-into-Brahman.

HPB tried very hard to fuse the "absolute nothing" (see Maseo Abe) voidism of Theravadin Buddhism, the energy-positive but impersonal atheistic monism of the Advaita Vedanta of the Sankarites and the Bhakti Shastra Theistic Personal Puranic teachings on the cosmos, great rounds and manus etc. into one systematized thought-whole. She could not succeed in this, because her perception of these mutually exclusive traditions as being fundamentally compatible was flawed.

One thing that HPB didn't realize was that there were various forms of Theistic monist or advaitic teachings within the ancient orthodox Shastric Vaishnava Lineages. These had always been there, and were associated with either 1. the Brahma-jyoti (Brahman effulgence, or Personal Transcendental Bodily 'Glory' and Shakti / Shekinah) of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and / or 2. The all-pervasive Purusha Presence as the holy spirit, PARAMATMAN within the material worlds. This form of Vaishnava Advaita Vedanta was compatible with Vaishnavism's transcendental personalism that the inventive Mahatmas and the Stanzas of Dzyan and traditional Puranas expounded on .

This was the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Tradition of Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who taught the doctrine of simultaneous, inconceivable difference and non-difference within the Persons of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and between the Self of the Supreme Being and the selves of all other beings. Based on the Radha-Krishna Bhakti Shastras, the Teachings of Caitanya explored RASA (flavors of Divine Love) and the relational dynamics of Transcendental Personalism in the internal 'mysteries', emanations and incarnations of the Giving Godhead and His Receiving Shakti / Shekinah. Had Theosophists studied non-dualism might they have found a synthesis of the personal and impersonal traditions that actually would work ?

The above is extracted from the apparenly very informative reg. the influence of post-modernist Orientalism in the US and Europe today, by bhakti_eohn .

By the way geologists in India say they have found an elephant fossil in the Thar desert of Rajasthan, supporting earlier theories that the vast desert was once a fertile area. During the Pleistocene epoch, India touched Eurasia and there were indications that Asian elephants moved south due to the prevailing ice-age in the northern hemisphere.

From: Sarawati River Key to Aryan Invasion Theory? At :

Date: Tue, 03 Dec 2002 19:13:59 -0000
From: "Brian Muehlbach" <>
Vedic Culture list

NASA Images Find 1,750,000 Year Old Man-Made Bridge
The Hindustan Times; 10-10-2002

WASHINGTON (PTI) -- The NASA Shuttle has imaged a mysterious ancient bridge between India and Sri Lanka, as mentioned in the Ramayana.  The evidence, say experts matter-of-factly, is in the Digital Image Collection.

The recently discovered bridge, currently named as Adam's Bridge and made of a chain of shoals, 30 km long, in the Palk Straits between India and Sri Lanka, reveals a mystery behind it.  The bridge's unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is man-made. Legend as well as Archeological studies reveal that the first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the primitive age, about 1,750,000 years ago and the bridge's age is also almost equivalent.

 Space images taken by NASA reveal a mysterious ancient bridge in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka. The recently discovered bridge currently named as Adam&laqno;s Bridge is made of chain of shoals, c.18 mi (30 km) long.

The bridge&laqno;s unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is man made. The legends as well as Archeological studies reveal that the first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the a primitive age, about 1,750,000 years ago and the bridge&laqno;s age is also almost equivalent.

This information is a crucial aspect for an insight into the mysterious legend called Ramayana, which was supposed to have taken place in tredha yuga (more than 1,700,000 years ago).  In this epic, there is a mentioning about a bridge, which was built between Rameshwaram (India) and Srilankan coast under the supervision of a dynamic and invincible figure called Rama who is supposed to be the incarnation of the supreme.

This information may not be of much importance to the archeologists who are interested in exploring the origins of man, but it is sure to open the spiritual gates of the people of the world to have come to know an ancient history linked to the Indian mythology.


From Hugh Joseph October 12th 2002

Hi Jeff...

I read the story headlined above with great interest. This is a story of major significance, as understanding its implications will turn the entire world of Science and History on its head. This bridge, according to accounts in the Ramayana and the Srimad-Bhagavatam, was constructed in the age know as Treta, over 2 million years ago.

How did the writers without super space-ranging satellites know about the existence of this bridge? In these ancient accounts, written over 5,000 years ago, we find discussions of, among other things, space travel, inter planetary travel, what we call UFOs and what we mistakenly call ETs. This is not only the History of the planet Earth, but also of this Universe, (a mediocre universe among many millions of universes.)

Here one can also learn the real undisguised and uncontaminated truth about God. Our man-made religions are of little or no value when compared to the stunning and breathtaking revelations found in the pages of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, Ramayan, Bhagavad-gita, etc.

I hope you will publish this comment for the benefit of your readers.

Thank you for the great work you are doing.

Hugh Joseph

For your readers, here is the way the "Srimad Bhagavatam" describes the event:

Text 22
nara-devatvam apannah
cakre viryany atah param

"In the eighteenth incarnation (of Lord Krishna), the Lord appeared as King Rama. In order to perform some pleasing work for the demigods, He exhibited superhuman powers by controlling the Indian Ocean and then killing the atheist King Ravana, who was on the other side of the sea".

Purport (by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
The Personality of Godhead Sri Rama assumed the form of a human being and appeared on the earth for the purpose of doing some pleasing work for the demigods, or the administrative personalities, to maintain the order of the universe. Sometimes great demons and atheists like Ravana and Hiranyakasipu and many others become very famous due to advancing material civilization by the help of material science and other activities, with a spirit of challenging the established order of the Lord. For example, the attempt to fly to other planets by material means is a challenge to the established order. The conditions of each and every planet are different, and different classes of human beings are accommodated there for particular purposes mentioned in the codes of the Lord. But, puffed up by tiny success in material advancement, sometimes the godless materialists challenge the existence of God. Ravana was one of them, and he wanted to deport ordinary men to the planet of Indra (heaven) by material means without consideration of the necessary qualifications. He wanted a staircase to be built up directly reaching the heavenly planet so that people might not be required to undergo the routine of pious work necessary to enter that planet. He also wanted to perform other acts against the established rule of the Lord. He even challenged the authority of Sri Rama, the Personality of Godhead, and kidnapped His wife, Sita. Of course Lord Rama came to chastise this atheist, answering the prayer and desire of the demigods. He therefore took up the challenge of Ravana, and the complete activity is the subject matter of the "Ramayana". Because Lord Ramachandra was the Personality of Godhead, He exhibited superhuman activities which no human being, including the materially advanced Ravana, could perform. Lord Ramacandra prepared a royal road on the Indian Ocean with stones that floated on the water. The modern scientists have done research in the area of weightlessness, but it is not possible to bring in weightlessness anywhere and everywhere. But because weightlessness is the creation of the Lord by which He can make the gigantic planets fly and float in the air, He made the stones even within this earth to be weightless and prepared a stone bridge on the sea without any supporting pillar. That is the display of the power of God.

(Srimad-Bhagavatam First Canto, Chapter 3, text 24, 1972)

Here's the account from the "Ramayana" of Sage Valmiki:

"At Rama's command, those lions among the monkeys entered the mighty forest with alacrity in hundreds and thousands on every side and those leaders on the simian tribes, tearing up the rocks, which in size they resembled, and the trees also dragged them to the sea and they covered the ocean with Sala, Ashvararna, (list of tree names).Those foremost monkeys transported those trees, with or without roots, bearing them like so many standards of Indra (the king of heaven) and they heaped (list of tree names) here and there. With the aid of mechanical devices, those powerful colossi dug up stones as big as elephants and rocks, and the water suddenly spouted into the air only to fall instantly. Thereafter those monkeys churned up the sea by rushing into it on all sides pulling on the chains.

"That immense causeway constructed by Nala in the bosom of the sea was built by the arms of those monkeys of formidable exploits and it extended over a hundred leagues.

"Some brought trunks of trees and others set them up; it was by hundreds and thousands that those monkeys, like unto giants, made use of reeds, logs and blossoming trees to construct that bridge, rushing hither and thither with blocks of stone resembling mountains or the peaks of crags, which, flung into the sea, fell with a resounding crash.

"The first day those monkeys resembling elephants, or immense energy, full of high spirits and exceedingly merry, erected fourteen leagues of masonry. The second day, those highly active monkeys of formidable stature set up twenty leagues. Bestirring themselves, those giants threw twenty-one leagues of structure over the ocean on the third day and on the fourth, working feverishly, they built up twenty-two leagues in extent. The fifth day, those monkeys, industrious workers, reached to twenty-three leagues distance from the further shore.

"That fortunate and valiant son of Vishvakarma (architect of the demigods), leader of the monkeys, constructed a causeway worthy of his sire over the ocean and that bridge erected by Nala over the sea, the haunt of whales, dazzling in its perfection and splendor, was like the constellation of Svati in space.

"Then the gods, Gandharvas, Siddhas (living beings superior to humans) and supreme Rishis (great sages) assembled in the sky, eager to see that masterpiece, and the gods and Gandharvas gazed on that causeway, so difficult of construction, that was ten leagues in width and a hundred in length built by Nala.

"Those monkeys thereafter dived, swam and shouted at the sight of that unimaginable marvel that was almost inconceivable and caused one to tremble! And all beings beheld that causeway thrown over the ocean and by hundreds and thousands of kotis (millions), those monkeys, full of valor, having built that bridge over the immense repository of waters, reached the opposite shore.

"Vast, well-constructed, magnificent with its wonderful paved floor, solidly cemented, that great causeway like unto a line traced on the waves, resembled the parting of a woman's hair.

"Meanwhile Bibishana (brother of Ravana who joined Rama), mace (club) in hand, held himself ready at his post with his companions in case of an enemy attack. Thereafter Sugriva addressed Rama, who was valiant by nature, saying "Mount on the shoulders of Hanuman and Laxmana (brother of Rama) on those of Angada. O Hero, vast is this ocean, the abode of whales; those two monkeys who freely range the sky will transport you both."

"Then the fortunate Rama and Laxmana advanced thus and that magnanimous archer was accompanied by Surgriva. Some monkeys strode forward in the center, some threw themselves into the waves, some sprang into the sky, others marched on the bridge, some ranged through space like birds, and the terrific tumult of the trampling of that formidable army of monkeys drowned the roar of the ocean.

"When those simian troops had passed over the sea by the grace of Nala's causeway, the king ordered them to camp on the shore which abounded in roots, fruits and water.

At the sight of that masterpiece that had materialized under the command of Raghava (another name of Lord Rama), despite the difficulties, the gods, who had drawn near with the Siddhas and Charanas as also the great Rishis, anointed Rama in secret there, with water form the sea, and said: "Mayest thou be victorious over thy foes, O Thou, who are a God among men! Do Thou rule over the earth and the sea eternally!"

Thus in various auspicious words, did they acclaim Rama in the midst of the homage offered to him by the Brahmins."

(The Ramayana of Valmiki, Yuddha Kanda)

Note: Lord Krsna's incarnation Rama, appeared as a human being because only a human being could kill Ravana, due to certain benedictions that he had been given.

Note: The monkeys mentioned here as comprising Rama's army, were not ordinary monkeys. They were in fact greatly powerful demigods who appeared on this earth to assist the Lord in his pastime of subduing this atheistic demon, Ravana.

Note: There are 4 ages, or yugas, rotating through time like the 4 seasons: Satya, 1,800,000 yeas long; Dvarapa, 1,200,000 years long, Treta, 800,000 years long and Kali, 432,000 years long. In this most recent yuga cycle, the Dvarapara and Treta yugas were reversed. This event took place about 2 million years ago.

Comments welcome

**Go to this webpage for a satellite picture:

NASA Photos Reveal Bridge to Lanka

USA, September 24, 2002: Space images taken by NASA reveal a mysterious ancient bridge in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka. The recently discovered bridge, clearly visible in the NASA photos, is made of a chain of underwater shoals 18 miles long. This article claims the bridge appears "manmade," but does not say how that conclusion was arrived at, nor if NASA agreed. According to the Ramayana, Lord Rama built a bridge to Lanka in ancient times, and the new photos greatly intrigue Hindus.

Courtesy of

  NASA Images Discover Ancient Bridge between India and SriLanka (Courtesy : NASA Digital Image Collection)

Space images taken by NASA reveal a mysterious ancient bridge in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka. The recently discovered bridge currently named as Adam´s Bridge is made of chain of shoals, c.18 mi (30 km) long.

The bridge´s unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is man made. The legends as well as Archeological studies reveal that the first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the a primitive age, about 17,50,000 years ago and the bridge´s age is also almost equivalent.

This information is a crucial aspect for an insight into the mysterious legend called Ramayana, which was supposed to have taken place in tredha yuga (more than 17,00,000 years ago).

In this epic, there is a mentioning about a bridge, which was built between Rameshwaram (India) and Srilankan coast under the supervision of a dynamic and invincible figure called Rama who is supposed to be the incarnation of the supreme.

This information may not be of much importance to the archeologists who are interested in exploring the origins of man, but it is sure to open the spiritual gates of the people of the world to have come to know an ancient history linked to the Indian mythology.

Dear Readers: the article above are from Hindustani Times and Hinduism Today. For more regarding the time frame of the Ramayan and the actual building of the bridge to Lanka please read HERE:


Mid October, 1999 - Mid December, 1999                                      Kartik - Margshirsh, 5101 [2056]

Krishan Lal comments on the plunder of Hindu Shahi Artefacts By Europeans

The Plunder Of Pakistan's Heritage

Pakistan is the home of the oldest civilisation in the world - the Vedic civilisation. Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and the North West Frontier Province, were all homes to the most advanced engineering, scientific, literary and cultural societies of their time. The fame of these empires is spread across the world. Who has not heard of the Gandharan, Kushan and Shahi Empires and the centres of Lahore, Kushavati, Pushkalavati, Pushpapur, Nahronkot, Shalkot, Taxila and Mohanjodaro ? Over a stretch of over 15,000 years, these and other Pakistan based civilisations have had a profound impact not only upon Central Asia but as far afield as South Asia, South-East Asia, the Middle East, East Asia and Europe.

Even after all these years, it is extraordinary that new discoveries are being made on a regular basis. Even after all the study and research into Pakistan's ancient heritage is considered, the amount of discoveries made so far are merely a drop in the ocean. Archaeological discoveries made overseas are very young in comparison to Pakistan where they range upto at least 8,000 years. In Egypt, the potential for discoveries is limited in what they can continue to find as the ancient Egyptian civilisation was centred around the Nile Delta and has been heavily explored.

With this in mind and with very little archaeological work done overall in Pakistan, the result is that there are a lot of artefacts have not been recorded by the Department of Archeology and hence, with the assistance of some unscrupulous people, the incentive for wealthy foreigners to plunder someone else's heritage (Pakistan's) becomes enormous. This scenario of destruction of Pakistan's ancient heritage has already occured with the illegal occupation of Pakistan by the British who placed much effort to destroy or plunder the Vedic and Islamic heritage of Pakistan.

Professor Shah Naszar of the Department of Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum Khan Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at the University of Peshawar recently expressed concern over the smuggling of ancient coins from the North West Frontier Province's ancient Hindu Kingdom of Gandhara according to an article published in the Dawn newspaper.

According to the Professor, one of the most significant recent discoveries is that of Shri Salih (Haripur) which is situated in the village of Manak Rai in the vicinity of the Daur River. Here, eight very ancient and rare coins were found and are now in private hands. Many of the smugglers are equipped with the latest metal detectors and are actively involved in plundering Pakistan's ancient heritage from undiscovered and unrecorded sites.

Some smugglers are resorting to the use of dynamite in order to quickly gain access to the artefacts. According to Prof. Naszar, "These seekers are also collecting coins from local people, who have now adopted illegal excavation as a profession".

Another holy Hindu site in the NWFP is the Kashmir caves site where illegal excavation led to the discovery of bronze statues, silver and copper coins and seals with animal figures and scripts dating too over two thousand years ago.

From 1996, coins from the Hindu Shahi Empire (which was centred on the North West Frontier Province and stretched into Central Asia) have made their way onto the local market from the historical sites. Prof. Naszar says these coins are ".... are priceless and valuable". Recently, it was reported that the Mardan police had seized a large amount of ancient coins which were being smuggled. 25,000 items were recovered by the Anti-Smuggling Squad officers at Peshawar Airport on May 16 alone.

Whilst in the West, there is so much concern and anguish over the protection of their heritage even if it is only a few hundred years in age, there is no such respect or concern for the ancient cultures of other nations especially the highly advanced Hindu Kingdoms of Pakistan. Pakistan has a documented history of over 15,000 years and has one of the largest number of historical sites in the world. There are in excess of 7,000 archaeological sites in the vicinity of the border areas with Afghanistan. In contrast, the oldest historical sites in Europe are at the most only 1,500 - 2,000 years old and in the United States, they are less than 400 years old.

The plunder of the ancient Vedic sites of Pakistan is of major concern as this is becoming a multi-million dollar business being financed by European money. Interestingly, the European Union has taken no active steps in stopping this theft of our nation's heritage nor any steps to assist in the return of these ancient Pakistani antiquities. It appears that London is fast becoming the capital for the entry of smuggled Pakistani Vedic and Islamic art into Europe.

Just like the United States and Europe do not like the illegal drug trade, Pakistanis do not like the illegal trade in their ancient artefacts. Though drug smuggling prevention appears to be given so much attention and rhetoric, when it comes to antiquity smuggling, there appears to be no such rhetoric nor action by the Western communitiy as it is their citizens who are financing this illegal and despised trade in heritage.

The artefacts found here provide us a valuable insight into the type of of life our ancestors lived and help us to remember that our ancestors developed highly sophisticated empires and kingdoms. They had a high emphasis on literature, music, the arts, science, engineering as well as religion.

They had an interest in the freedom of expression of the individual, they had the most advanced and developed economy in the world at their time and they fully believed the notion of developing trade and cultural links between societies. By preserving historical sites throughout Pakistan, we are maintaining a close link to our past and our ancestors.

With this attack on Pakistani heritage, it is the responsibility of all Pakistanis to prevent foreigners from making money from illegal activities which are detrimental to our nation. The legacy of Pakistani civilisations is an important asset which all Pakistanis must protect for future generations so that they can gain an appreciation of the glorious and magnificient past of their ancestors and the impact of ancient Pakistan upon the entire world.

© Pakistani Hindu Patrika - 5101 (1999)

Pakistani Hindu Patrika - Home page:

Traditional Names of Places in Pakistan


Punjab Afghania Kashmir Iran Sindh Tukharistan Afghanistan BaluchistaN

Pakistan's European / Western Culture
Extracts from `Pakistan or Pastan-Destiny or Disintegration', 1950 by C.R.Ali

From his first circular of January 1933 up to his last pamphlet of 1950, C.R.Ali was as critical of the British as of the Hindus. There is no praise of British rule in India, notwithstanding the congratulations given by an earlier generation of Muslim leaders (Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Ameer Ali, the Aga Khan, and several presidents of the Muslim League). There is not a single word which can be interpreted as a compliment to the ruling power. He blames them for overthrowing the Mughals and for reducing Muslim India to a country in which his people have become the actual slaves of the British and potential serfs of the Hindus. He regards the British as usurpers of Muslim sovereignty, not only in India but in many other lands. He speaks of the agelong hostility of the Christian West against Islam. But he reserves his hardest words for those Muslim politicians who look to foreign rule for protection and help. In his last pamphlet he asks Pakistan to abandon the British Commonwealth, to reject Western culture and to give up its pro-West political stance.

"The next danger is that of the steady adoption by us of European Culture in place of our own Pak Culture, which, in spite of its neglect by us during the last two centuries, is still the finest culture in the world.

To realise the gravity of this danger one has merely to remember that today the whole life of our intelligentsia is modelled on that of Europeans. Indeed, to ape their habits and manners, their diet and dress, their attitude and outlook, has become the highest aim and ambition of us all.

To satisfy that ambition we use the English language, we copy the British institutions, and we follow the Western calendar. The result is that our thought, our expression, and our action are all inspired and shaped by European Culture - a Culture the core and content of which is Christian. This means that voluntarily and systematically we are surrendering Islam, Saracenism, and Pakism to Britishism, Europeanism and Westernism. In fact, such is our degradation that the fuller surrender we make of our heritage, the happier we feel with ourselves.

This attitude and action most of us conveniently justify in the name of `Kemalism' (Kemal Attaturk-founder of secular Turkey), little realising that `Kemalism' is not a heaven-sent cult for us; and also that, in its original form, it was definitely a protest against Europeanism. Indeed, its victories in 1921-22 were all won by the appeal of Pan-Islamism and for the cause of Islamic culture and civilisation; and, what is more, its subsequent Europeanisation of the whole heritage of Islam in the world - and, in essence, Europeanisation is Christianisation. Thus it has done to our heritage what Christianity has failed to do in the Crusades.

Such, in brief, is the origin, the history, and the effect of `Kemalism'. In the light of this it should be clear to us that to `Westernise' ourselves in the name of `Kemalism' is to complete the social disaster, the effects of which are already corrupting our soul and spirit of our Nation and are compromising the future of our cause in the world.

Again, those of us who do not justify our `Westernisation' in the name of `Kemalism' try to explain it as the inevitable and unavoidable result of British rule. This explanation is mere excuse-mongering. It just isn't true. For, after all, we are not the only people who have suffered subjection of the British rule. The Hindoos have suffered that, too. Not only that. Before the British rule they suffered subjection to our rule. Yet just as during the twelve centuries of our rule they rejected our culture, so during the two centuries of British rule they rejected the British culture. And, what is more, in this long period of subjection, they revived and popularised their own old, Aryan, Vedic culture and felt proud of their achievement. It is worth remembering in this connection that, if in some ways they act or look like the British, this is due, not to their `Westernisation', but to the affinities of their culture with the British (Aryan) culture.

This should convince us that, in the ultimate analysis, our `Europeanisation' IS OUR FAULT. To say that is not to assert that the English did not try to `Anglicise' or `Europeanise' us. They did that, and systematically. It is merely to stress that, had we remained as true to our culture in the one century of our subjection as were the Hindoos to theirs in the fourteen centuries of Islamic subjection, we could have avoided the ill-effects of British rule. But we were not true to it; and in that falseness lies the real explanation of our present `Westernisation'.

Let us, therefore, be honest about it, admit it, and do now what we failed to do before. Let us make a start by reverting to, among other things, our own Saracenic Culture, our own Islamic Calendar, and our own Pak language, in place of the European Culture, the Christian Calendar, and the English language, all of which were introduced by the Imperialists to ensure our intellectual enslavement, our social hybridisation, and our spiritual de-Islamisation. This reversion is imperative because without it, we cannot avoid our complete degeneration - a degeneration from which we shall never recover. Make no mistake about it. We are now in the third generation of our `Europeanisation', and History shows that, after the third generation, deculturisation of a people destroys its very soul.


(hereunder IS A free-rendering of an Article  Muzaffar Hussain contributed to the  Hindi daily.  Ranchi Express, dated Sunday, 27 February 2000)

     The very kandhar city in Afghanistan which was recently the secently the scene of a perilous  hijack by Muslim /  militants, of nearly 200 persons in an Indian aeroplance.  Even less than 50 years ago the Hindu population in kandhar was 150,000/- While the Sikhs Numbered 25,000.

     Kandhar is the current matpronunciation of the Sanskrit term Gandhar which was the capital of a flourishing ancient Hindu kingdom.  Gandhari belonged to the region.

     After their dafeat their defeat in the Mahabharat war,many of the kaurva descendants settled in the kandhar region which was their maternal home.  From there they gradually moved to what are currently know  as iraq and Saudi  Arbia.. in ancient Times Arab horses were welknown for their fine breed (Arva in Sanskrit signifies a horse.  Consequently the Sanskrit term Arvasthan / currently mal-prounced as Arbastan) signifies ‘a land of horses.’)

Being warriors.  Kaurvas highly appreciated the well-bred horses of the region.  That is why they named the region as Arvasthan.

God Shiva was the deity worshipped in that entire region.  Conversion to islam led to the extnction of Shiva and Sun- Worship in the region.

Shiva worship was widespread in Afghanistan too.  But later the spread of Buddhism ledto the gradual extinction of Shiva worship.  Since Buddhism was an indigenous sprout its religious practices were akin to those in in vogue earlier.  But the new religions  (Christianity and islam)  being forged and forced on the inhaitants of West Asian regions being intolerant, they led to the extinction of the earlier Vedic  and Buddhist cultures in West Asia.  Perhaps that was the result of contrasting soils.  India being a fertile  region, the religions and cultures there were tolerant and loving, while the religions and cultures originating in hot, desert lands of West Asia were intolerant and cruel.

Graduaily Afghanistan was occupied by Muslims invaders.   Arab, Turk and Mongol invasions led to the gredual extinction of Hindu, Vedic, Buddha culture.  One wonders how long can any vestige of its original, tolerant Hindu,  Vedic culture can survive in Afghanistan when that entire region is a victim of waves of Muslim militants sheltering isama-bin-Lden, an intoleant Muslim Leader.  Thus the history of Afghanistan is the history of the rise and fall of Shiva worship that was prevalent for long in the region.

There was a time when the entire region was replete with hundreds of shiva temples celebrating Shiva – parvati  worship and abuzz with  Shiv chants, prayers, legends and worship.  Archaeological excavations in this region conducted by Sir Estine (an East India Company official)  led to the recovery of uncountable idols and inscriptions.  He has authored four books on that topic featuring photos of icons, icons and inscriptions discovered.
The photos show a sun temple and a Ganesh idol too.  An Islamabad University  professor Abdul Rehman has authored two books on those finds recalling the glory and prosperity of those times.  Regimes of two Hindu rulers kusham and kidara lasted for fairly long periods.  During their rule a number of Shiv temples were erected not for fairly long periods, During their rule a number of shiv temples were erected not only in Afghanistan but in other West Asian regions too.  Uzbekistan  and  Takzikistan formed part of the Afghan kingdom in those times.  Tashkent has one of those ancient Shiv temples standing even today.  Professor Abdul  Rehman
states that  Bukhara region was known as shah Vihar in ancient times.  It was ruled by an Hindu king.  When Arabs invaded that kingdom its queen traveled to Kashmir to seek military help.  Arab chronicles mention her as Khatoon, meaning ’Woman’ Kalhan, the ancient Hindu historian of Kashmir has mentioned that the
army of the then Hindu ruler of Kashmir had a battle with a vast army of thye Arab Khalifa Mamoon whose headquarters was Baghdad.  At that time Bukhara had been under Muslim rule. He had invited a number of feading  Hindu experts to Baghdad.  An Anyurvedic practitioner of varansi (alias Benares) had treated the Khalifa for some alilment afficting the alatter.   In those days it was Hindu Ayurvedic practitioners who were eagerly sought by Arab patients.  A number of Arabs had translated Sanskrit Ayurvedic texts into Arabic. A list of those translated Sanskrit texts appears in a Volume known as al Frisht.

Baku (capital of the  Azerbaijan region)  known for its underground petroleum yields has still an ancient Hindu temple of the Divine Flame generated by the subterraneas petrol and gas).  During the Czar regimes in Russia a Punjabi priest officiated at that temple.  The walls display some religious stanzas written in Punjabi Gurumakhi script.  The market there also had Hindu merchants.  Nearby was a locality too of Hindu inhabitants.  Baku in Azerbaijani language actually signifies a Goddess.  Therefore obviously Baku derives its name from a very ancient Vedic Goddess temple there.

Kenduj a province of Afghanistan, ruled by a king had a Hindu prime minister.  This is mentioned in history books.  Albirruni’s travel account contains details of ancient Hindu Afghanistan,  He mentions a Hindu king, Khingla whose coins bore the imprint of God Shiva.  The first ruler of that dynasty was viahitagni. History mentions a Shiva temple in Gardej township, which was plundered by Arab invaders.  That dynasty ruled the region from 666 to 843  A.D. From 843 to 850 A.D. a Brahmin Minister ruled the region.  The kalkaa community of Brahmins had ancquired promince in those times.  They were later known as kallers.  A township of that name exists in Punjab. Prominent among them who find a mention in later history are samantdev, Bheemdev, jaipaldev, Anandpal and Trilochan , Jaipaldev suffered a defeat in 1002 when Mohammed Ganzavi invaded India. Unable to bear that defeat Jaipaldev committed suicide.

Arabs began invading Afghanistan around, 155A.D. A Persian chronicle TARIKH-E-SISTAN  records that invasion and the plunder and devastation of a shiva temple there The invader ibn-e-Samurah carried away the gold idol of Shiva among other Valuables. When ibn Samurah invaded kandhar he carried out a general massacre.

Abbasi Khalifas repeatedly invaded Kabul.  The notorious khalifa yajid, at whose beheast Sindh province ruled by Raja Dalhir, was invaded by Arab forces, his army commander invaded the Hindu Kingdom of Kabul-that proved to be a disastrous  misadventure, because, in the fierce battle fought in Kabul the Arab army suffered a  humiliating defeat.

Dr.  Rehman’s book carries photos of the coins and temples of Hindu rulers of  Afghanistan.  Along with them are reproduced photos of smashed idols of shiv and Durga from temples destroyed  in Gardej.  The book mentions that temples in the kherkana area of Kabul of Kabul sufferd great devastation.  Idols of Shiva.  Durga and the sun are very attractive.  Some of the coins recovered in excavations bear the names of the Hindu rulers there in Sanskrit.  At Hudud on the banks of the Attack river, stood a very massive fort of Hindu rulers.  Excavations conducted in that township have revealed inscriptions  concerning the regimes of Seemadex, jaipal, Rajkumari, Ratnamanjari, and Maharani Kameshwari Devi.  All those are on display in the Musecums at Lahore, Kabul and peshwar.  The inscription alluding to the reign of Jaipaldev, ruler of Kabul has 13 lines in that Sharda script of Sanskrit language.

That Afghanistan where in times bygone Hindu and Buddhist flags, signifying peace. Piety, prosperity and progress, held sway, is now the scene of cjaptoc slaughter and destruction.  Looking at Mulla umar’s current directives and the slaughters rampant in Afghanistan these days, memories of Afghanistan’s ancient peaceful, noble and prosperous times seem to fade out of one’s memory.

(We are grateful to Shree Muzaffar Husein, who wrote that article, and to Dr.  Shreekrishna Simha Sondh of Chittarpur who vigilantly mailed it to us.  The Sistam region obviously is the Sanskrit term Shiv sthan, an area of sacred Shiv worship.)

Afghanistan and It's Vedic Culture

Afghan"isthan" was once center of Vedic Culture. The Indo Aryans definitely lived in that region before migrating further either upwards or downwards. For the Aryans Afghanistan was the land of the Gandharvas or the celestial beings. The Gandharvas were depicted in the Vedic scriptures as celestial beings, skillful in music, with magical powers, and beautiful forms. In status they were not equal to the devas, but regarded as higher beings with divine powers, mischievous at times, but mostly friendly and reliable.

    In ancient times, the valleys of Afghanistan must have resonated with the sounds of many caravans crisscrossing the country. The Indus valley people conducted their overland trade with Mesopotamia through Afghanistan. Their caravans carried a variety of goods that included rare and precious stones, minerals, food grains, resins, gold, silver and bronze, incense, Pistachios and more. After the expansion of the Vedic culture and the decline of the Indus valley civilization Afghanistan was invaded and occupied by the Persian army headed by Darius, the Great, (522 to 486 BC). We have little information as to who were ruling Afghanistan at that time. Probably it was part of an Indian kingdom from the Punjab region or was ruled by local chieftains.

    When Alexander marched towards India, he passed through the mountainous territories of Afghanisthan and had to subdue many native tribes in the region. In the course of multiple battles he fought with them, his army was put to enormous strain and loss. Since his army was not familiar with the territory and his soldiers were not that skilled in mountain warfare, his army was literally exhausted by the time they reached the Indian borders and lost much of their motivation to fight further and march deeper into the subcontinent. The tired and frustrated soldiers insisted Alexander to return to their homeland. On their way back, Alexander had problems once again in the region and had to remain cautious till they crossed the borders of Afghanistan.

    Alexander appointed Seleucus I as the viceroy of the Asian territories he conquered, which comprised of a vast area that stretched from the northwestern borders of India to most of Anatolia and parts of Syria-Phoenicia. Selucus I was not able to maintain his hold on the region for long. A few years after he took over the reign, about 303 BC, Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the mighty Mauryan Empire from eastern India waged a war with Seleucus and defeated him.

    As a part of the agreement, Seleucus I gave his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta Maurya and also ceded him Afghanistan and surrounding areas. For a few centuries from then on, Afghanistan remained under the control of the Mauryan Empire and enjoyed some degree of stability. During the Mauryan rule, Buddhism spread into Afghanistan and became a dominant religion there.

    The Mauryan emperor who made this possible was Ashoka. He was the son of Bimbisara and the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya. During his reign the Mauryan empire reached its zenith. (See the Map). Perhaps under no other ruler before him or after him, so much of the country owed allegiance to one power.

    Ashoka had a special relation with Afghanistan. When he was still a young prince, his father Bimbsara appointed him as the viceroy of this region, with Taxila (Org.SK. Takshasila, currently located in Pakistan near Rawalpindi ) as his headquarters. Taxila was then a great religious and trade center. It was a great seat of Vedic learning, where flourished the study of Vedic scriptures, many arts, crafts and ancient sciences. With the emergence of Buddhism in the region this region started attracting Buddhist scholars too.

    Originally a cruel king, who allegedly ascended the throne after killing nearly a hundred of his own brothers, Ashoka underwent a life transforming experience at the height of his career. In the course of his conquests, which were many, he waged a bitter and bloody war against the people of Kalinga. This kingdom existed in those days in south eastern India, comprising the present day Orissa. The people of Kalinga were equally ferocious and stubborn people. Hence a bloody battle ensued in which there was a huge bloodshed on both sides and thousands of innocent people were killed, while materially nothing much was gained. The tragedy of the war and the ruin it brought upon so many people disturbed the emperor severely and changed his thinking forever. From a ruthless and ambitious ruler, he became converted to Buddhism and the ideals of compassion and non violence it preached. With in a few years after the war, he developed a philosophy of his own called the law of piety or dhamma, which was a hotch potch of Buddhist philosophy, Vedic dharma and the prevailing social and moral values of his times.

    He spent the rest of his life in pious activities and spreading his dhamma, which he got carved into stone inscriptions in the form of edicts. He appointed a task force to get those edicts planted all over India as a reminder to the people of the moral life he cherished them to follow. Encouraged by his patronage and protection, the Buddhist monks traveled to various parts of India and outside also to spread the teachings of the Buddha and bring people to the path of righteousness.

    The Mauryan empire declined after Ashoka and for sometime Afghanistan was left to itself. But it came into lime light once again with the invasion of the Bactrian Greeks. They invaded the subcontinent during the second century BC and established their power from the Oxus river in the west upto the Punjab in the east. Afghanistan was under their control. Not much is known about these new rulers. But we know that in matters of religion and social life they adopted some local practices. While some rulers turned to Hinduism for spiritual solace, some became devout Buddhists and patronized Buddhism.

    Buddhism owes a great deal to the Bactrian Greeks, whose patronage enabled Buddhism to gain firm foot holding in Central Asia and Chinese Tukistan. The most famous of the Bactrian Greeks about whom we have some confirmed details was King Menander. He ruled Punjab with Sakala as his capital and he became interested in Buddhism. The ancient Buddhist manuscript, the Milindapatha or the Path of Milinda by Nagasena records the conversations King Menander had with Nagasena about some aspects of Buddhism.

    The Bactrian Greeks were soon over thrown by the invading armies of Scythians and Parthians, followed by the Kushanas. The Kushanas were originally Chinese in origin, and came from a nomadic tribe by the name Yueh-chih. They reached India in a circuitous way through Central Asia, Bactria and Afghanistan and into the plains of the Punjab. They established a great empire that extended from the sea of Aral in the present day Russia in the north and the Chinese Turkmenistan in the east upto the northwestern frontiers of India including Afghanistan.

    Kanishka (2nd century AD) was the most famous of the Kushana rulers. His period was marked by the rise of Mahayana Buddhism. Pali bacame the principal language of literary experssion. And most important of all the period witnessed the remarkable maturing of the Gandhara school of art. The artists of this school blended both the Indian and Greek traditions of in a very harmonious way to produce remarkable pieces of art. It was an art that used Indian motifs but mostly Greek techniques.

    Foremost among the works produced by this school of art were the statues of the Buddha and the Bodhisattvas. Many of them now adorn the museums all over the world, while some were stolen and may be in the private collections. We also do not know fully the fate of those pieces that are presently lying in the Kabul Museum, and whether they Government there destroyed them or preserved them.

    The Kushanas were subsequently ousted by the Sassanids or Sassanians. They ruled Persia (modern Iran) and parts of northern Afghanistan from AD 224 to 651. Ardasir I was the founder of this dynasty and he was succeeded by his son Shapur I, whose reign lasted from AD 240 to AD 272. Shapur I defeated the Romans and expanded his empire considerably. The Sassanids were fire worshippers and followers of Zarathushtra. But they did not interfere much with way of life in Afghanistan, for Buddhism continued to flourish in the region. Probably after conquering the land, the Sassanids left the governance to local rulers because of the difficulties involved and their preoccupation with other the regions of their empire.

   This period is significant in the history of Buddhism because during this period the giant statues of the Buddha at Bamiyan were carved, which were considered to be the largest stone statues in the world, standing 177 feet tall. It is now well know that they were destroyed recently by the government of Afghanistan as a part of its religious zeal.

    Buddhism continued to flourish in this region till the 5th Century AD and declined there after. Two factors contributed to this trend. One was the invasion of Hunas. The Hunas were a barbarian and cruel band of vandals who perpetrated many religious atrocities against the native people and put many Buddhists to death.

    The second factor was the emergence of the Gupta empire. The Guptas were staunch followers of the Vedic religion, especially Vaishnavism, and they took upon themselves the task of reviving Hinduism which was then in a state of decline because of the popularity of Buddhism. Politically, however, Afghanistan continued to retain its strategic importance, because it still facilitated a great deal of trade along the silk route that connected Xinjiang or the Chinese Turkistan with the Middle east.

    With the invasion of Arabs in AD 642, for the first time Afghanistan encountered Islam. The Arabs converted some people there to Islam, but did not stay there for long because of the resistance from the Persians. Islam had to wait for another 300 and odd years to take its roots in the soil. Not much is known about the history of Afghanistan during this period following the Arab invasion. Probably the land was under the control of petty rulers who owed allegiance to the Persians.

    Then came the Ghaznavids. The Ghaznavid was a Turkish Muslim dynasty, which captured power in AD 970 and ruled Afghanistan and parts of Iran till AD 1087. Mahmud Gazni was the most aggressive ruler of this dynasty and is well known in the subcontinent for the 17 so called "holy wars" he conducted against the present day Pakistan and India. A materialist to the core who loved the best things of life, and a lover of arts who patronized poets and writers, his main objective was not to spread Islam, but to plunder and loot the rich kingdoms of the subcontinent in the name of religion. He destroyed many Hindu temples, looted the rich treasures of the native rulers and converted some native Hindus and Buddhists to Islam through wanton destruction and use of cruelty and force.

    After the Ghazanivids, Afghanistan once again came under the rule of petty rulers and plunged into anarchy. In the 12th Century AD it was invaded by the Mongols under the leadership of Genghis Khan (1167-1227) a ruthless, cruel and notorious ruler, who indulged in the destruction of many cities, including Herat, Ghazni, and Balkh. The fertile regions of Afghanistan were left follow as many peasants either fled their homes or were killed by his cruel and destructive soldiers.

    Genghis Khan's invasion was one of the many in a series of invasions by the foreign powers into Afghanistan. One name that is worth mentioning at this juncture is Babur. Babur was the founder of Mughal empire in the Indian subcontinent. He was a descendent of Timur, who in turn was a descendent of Genghis Khan.

    A petty ruler with a mighty ambition, Babur ruled parts of Afghanistan for sometime, with Kabul as his capital, before he decided to invade India and try his fortunes. A freebooter with a natural instinct for leadership, he gathered a band of committed soldiers and invaded India supposedly on invitation from some local nobility to fight against Ibrahim Lodi, who was then the ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. The Sultanate was already in a state of decline and was ready to collapse any time. The two armies fought a fierce battle on the grounds of Panipat in 1526 and Babur won because of his superior planning, organized army and committed leadership. After the victory, Babur decided to stay in India and consolidate his empire through further conquests.

    For nearly two hundred years thereafter Afghanistan remained partly under the control of the Mughals and partly under the Saffavids of Persia. The eastern parts owed their allegiance to the Mughals while the western part to the Safavids. In 1747, following the assassination of Nadirshah of Persia, Ahmed Shah Durrani (or as he is also known Ahmed Shah Baba) established his rule as an independent ruler supported by Pashthun tribal council. The Pasthuns controlled Afghanisthan till the Communist regime came to power in 1978.

Date: Fri, 23 Jul 2004 12:12:50 -0000
   From: "vrnparker" <>
Subject: Ancient Krsna Balaram Coins 200 BC

Ancient Krsna Balaram Coins 200 BC
Krsna, Agathocles coin, Ai Khanoum, Afghanistan, 2nd century B.C.

A lot of numismatic evidence also corroborates the antiquity of Krishna. For instance, excavations at Ai-Khanum, along the border of Afghanistan and the Soviet Union, conducted by P. Bernard and a French archeological expedition, unearthed six rectangular bronze coins issued by the Indo-Greek ruler Agathocles (180?-?165 BC). The coins had script written in both Greek and Brahmi and, most interestingly, show an image of Vishnu, or Vasudeva, carrying a Chakra and a pear-shaped vase, or conchshell, which are two of the four main sacred symbols of God in Vaisnavism. Many other finds of ancient coins also prove the antiquity of Krishna worship in India.

Balarama, Agathocles coin,
Ai Khanoum, Afghanistan, 2nd century B.C.

To summarize, today the weight of empirical evidence proves that Krishna and Vaisnavisam predate Christianity. Numerous literary, archeological, and numismatic sources build an unassailable case. Nevertheless, Vaisnavism and Christianity still show amazing similarities. In the chauvinistic and sectarian atmosphere of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, these similarities led most Western scholars to adopt the now discredited "borrowing theory." But these attitudes did more that distort the truth. In the twentieth century they directly led to two world wars of unprecedented ferocity and destruction. Therefore, sensitive and caring people perceive these attitudes as being obsolete, and, instead of clinging to them, more intelligent people now seek the path of unity. Even in religion, one of the key contemporary attitudes is the ecumenical spirit, the desire to emphasize more our similarities with other peoples, nations, and religions rather than our differences.

Presently, Heliodorus is the earliest Westerner on record who actually converted to Vaisnavism. Moreover, many reputable scholars, like Dr. A. L Basham and Dr. Thomas Hopkins, declare that Heliodorus was not the only Greek to convert. Dr. Hopkins, Chairman of the Department of Religious Studies at Franklin and Marshall college, says, "Heliodorus was presumably not the only foreigner who was converted to Vaisnava devotional practices (although he might have been the only one to erect a column, at least one that is still extant). Certainly there must have been many other." The Vedic religion saw itself as universal and welcomed all peoples into its embrace. As Raychaudhari writes:

The Beshnagar record testifies to the proselytizing zeal of the Bhagavatas in the pre-Christian centuries, and shows that their religion was excellent enough to capture the hearts of cultured Greeks, and catholic enough to admit them into its fold.

The Mora Well and Ghosundi Inscriptions tell us that the rich and complex Vaisnava conception of the Godhead and full expansions of the Godhead into the material universes were already well established in the first two centuries before Christ. The Srimad Bhagavatam says, that when the original Godhead, or Krishna, appears on the earthly plane, the Godhead always is accompanied by various complete expansions of the Godhead, who both possess the full potency of the Godhead and are worshipable. The Srimad Bhagavatam states, "Lord Krishna, the Personality of Godhead, along with Balarama, played like a human being, and so masked, he performed many superhuman acts." His divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada explains the system of divine expansion:

… Balarama and Krsna are original forms of the Lord… Krsna… is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Balarama is the first plenary manifestation of the Lord. From Balarama the first phalanx of the plenary expansions, Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Aniruddha and Pradyumna, expands. Lord Sri Krsna is Vasudeva, and Balarama is Sankarsana.

Seven miles west of Mathura in the small and unimposing village of Mora, General Cunningham made another vital find regarding the historicity of Vaisnavism. In 1882, on the terrace of an ancient well, he discovered a large stone slab filled with inscriptions. Although more than half of the writing had already peeled away on the right side, the remainder was legible. It was transcribed, and a facsimile of the inscription was published in the Archaeological Survey of India's Annual Report. The message was clear. Not only was Krishna worshiped in the centuries before Christ, but also His expansions or associates, especially "the five heroes of the Vrishni Clan." Scholarly research makes evident that these five are Krishna (Vasudeva), Balarama (Sankarshana), Pradyumna, Samba, and Aniruddha.

In 1908, a Dr. Vogel had the Mora Well slab removed to the Mathura Museum and tried to tamper with the translations of the inscriptions in order to throw the Vedic religion into a bad light. However, because the contents of the inscriptions had already been published authoritatively and were well known in academic circles, Dr. Vogel's efforts at creating disinformation failed. The complex theology, metaphysics, and cosmology of Sanatana Dharma and Vaisnavism definitely existed in an advanced state centuries before Christ. The Mora Well inscription is an important archeological proof of this historical fact.

In the village of Ghosundi in the Chitor district of Rajasthan is found the Ghosundi Inscription, which largely duplicates the message of the Mora Well Inscription. Kaviraja Shyamala Dasa first brought this evidence to light in The Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society. Today, the inscription can be inspected in the Victoria Hall Museum in Udaipur.

The surviving part of this inscription relevant to this chapter reads as follows:

[this] railing of stone for the purposes of worship is [caused to be made] in the Narayana-compound, [dedicated] to the Blessed Ones [bhagavabhyam] Samkarshana and Vasudeva, the gods…

The inscription is in a form of Sanskrit script called Northern Brahmi script, which dates the inscription as being from the second century BC in either the late Maurya or early Sunga periods. An almost identical inscription also was uncovered nearby and is called the Hathi-vada Inscription. These inscriptions also dispel the myth that Krishna was only revered by the ksatriya, or administrative-warrior, class of India, the class Krishna had appeared in. According to K. P. Jayaswal of the Archaeological Survey of India, these inscriptions demonstrate that brahmins, the priestly and intellectual class, also worshiped Krishna as the "Lord of all," and thus Vaisnavism was entrenched in the entire Indian society.

The same point is made in the famous Nanaghat Cave Inscription in the moder state of Maharashtra, where Vasudeva and Sankarshana (or Krishna and Balarama) are included in an invocation of a brahmin. Additionally, Raychaudhuri reports:

The Nanaghat Inscription shows further that the Bhagavata [Vaisnava] religion was no longer confined to Northern India, but had spread to the south and had captured the hearts of the sturdy people of Maharashtra. From Maharashtra it was destined to spread to the Tamil country and then flow back with renewed vigour to the remotest corners of the Hindu world.

On epigraphical grounds, this inscription is dated conclusively as coming from the second half of the first century BC.

If Westerners can drop their defenses and look at Vaisnavism with ecumenical eyes, they will see a religion and a philosophy which undoubtedly through the Greeks helped to shape the soul of Western civilization itself and its largest religion, Christianity. Rather than being shocked by the similarities, we ought to rejoice in them. From at least our vantage point and in light of all the material presented in this book and from other sources, it is obvious to us that Christians and Vaisnavas are worshiping the same original Godhead and are seeking salvation and solace from that Godhead through the same transcendental, personal loving relationship.

The early Western researchers into Vaisnavism were correct in at least this sense: there are too many similarities between Vaisnavism and Christianity for it to be mere coincidence. And since the "borrowing theory" cannot explain it, we suggest that both religions emanate form the same divine revelatory source-God. The message of Krishna in the Bhagavad-gita and the message of Jesus Christ in the New Testament are identical in essence: recognize the loving existence of your Divine Father and enter into a personal loving relationship with God. Each religion has developed this philosophy with different areas of strength. Vaisnavism presents a far more systematic and scientific explanation of divinity and metaphysics, while christianity in the West is proving more adept at putting the philosophy of God's love into practical action in areas like economic advancement, human rights, and political participation. If the ecumenical spirit grows and predominates in both East and West, then these two great religions can share their strengths openly with each other to create a civilization that would be far more evolved and cultured than anything that exists today. In the end the issue really isn't who borrowed what from whom. For a true Vaisnava or Christian this issue is resolved simply­everything we have is borrowed ultimately from God. God is the original source, and God is one.

Afghanistan's Historic Hindu Temples Busy For Navaratri

KABUL, AFGHANISTAN, October 5, 2005: With the onset of the nine-day festival period of Navaratri, Kabul's ancient Hindu temples are buzzing with a record number of devotees of all faiths. The focal attraction is Asamai temple. Hundreds of Afghanistan's Hindus and Sikhs as well as Indians employed in reconstruction projects pay their obeisance there every day. The hill is named Asamai after Asha, the Goddess of hope said to be residing on the hilltop since time immemorial. Legend goes that the Akhand Jyoti or continuous fire there has been burning uninterrupted for over 4,000 years. Amazingly, both the temple and the jyoti have survived numerous bloody wars for supremacy over Kabul, says this article. Two large halls with a capacity of about 1,000 persons form part of the Asamai complex, commonly used for religious congregations on festivals like Navaratri and Diwali. Kabul boasts another ancient temple complex--Harshri Nath--with temples devoted to Hindu deities Siva, Saraswati and Ganesha. The Harshri Nath temple attracts several Hindu families who returned to Kabul over the past four years. Several Sikh families also visit the temple every week to pray alongside Hindus. Kabul's third temple is located in the Shor Bazaar area once the hub of the trade in clothes, currency and dry fruits that is dominated by Hindus and Sikhs. Dedicated to God Siva, the small temple miraculously survived severe shelling during the Civil War, even as the entire Shor Bazaar was reduced to rubble. Though the local Hindu and Sikh population has dropped to about 5,000 from close to 20,000, the temple is a favorite with scores of Indians currently engaged in reconstruction work.

About Afghan Hindus


Afghan Hindu King Victorious

 Hindu king of Afghanistan who compelled caliphs to pay tributes
By Ganeshi Lal Verma

THE land mass around Ghazni, especially the high lands of Kandhar along the upper water of Setumant (Mohd. Helmund) was once known as Zabulistan and was ruled by the Hindu kings. The kings there bore the title of Sahiyas or Shahianushahi, from where the title of Shahanshah was derived. Sahiyas were sun-worshipper.

During that time Siestan and a part of Baluchistan also formed part of the kingdom. A Chinese traveller known as Yuan-Chwang visited the kingdom as is recorded in his travels.

The Arabs, driven by cupidity invaded Zabulistan a number of times during the period of early caliphs, namely Ushman, Ali and Muaviyya. In AD 661 the Arab army, under the command of Ubaydullah attacked the kingdom of Zabulistan. But the army was routed and the general was captured. Thereupon another Arab general Yazid Ibn Zujad was sent with a strong army to relieve the Muslim army. But Zujad was also summarily defeated. Thus frustrated, Muslims entered into a negotiation with the Hindu king of Zabulistan called king Pranatpal Sahiya, whom the Arab chronicles call Rutbil. According to the negotiations, the Caliph's envoy promised never to invade Zabulistan again and also paid a fine of seven lakh dirhams as compensation for attacking Zabulistan.

Thereafter for 15 years there remained peace. However, in AD 695, Hijjaj, the Caliph's governor of erstwhile Persian Empire and Central Asia sent another general with the name, Abdullah to conquer the kingdom of Zabulistan. In AD 698 the general penetrated deep into Zabulistan without any opposition from the Sahiyas. A massive battle took place between the forces of Abdullah and the forces of Sahiyas. Finally Abdullah was defeated and he was forced to enter into a treaty with Sahiyas. After which Abdullah was allowed to retreat. Neither Hijjaj, nor his master—the caliph approved the treaty. Abdullah was punished with dismissal. After some years once again the Arabs invaded Zabulistan. This time a new general Abu Bakrak, provided with 40,000 strong fighters, was instructed to invade Zabulistan and was told not to return, untill he had either completely subjugated or destroyed the whole realm of Sahiyas.

The Arab army was very badly defeated and the Arab general was forced to enter into a treaty with Sahiyas according to which the Arabs were forced to pay a fine of 500,000 dirhams to the Sahiyas.

History was again repeated. The Arab general advanced and the Sahiyas tactfully retreated. And the moment the Arabs reached the interior of Zabulistan, the army of Sahiyas encircled the enemy. The Arab army was very badly defeated and the Arab general was forced to enter into a treaty with Sahiyas according to which the Arabs were forced to pay a fine of 500,000 dirhams to the Sahiyas. The Arab general Abu Bakrah also agreed to give his sons as hostages to the Sahiyas.

Note from the writer:

For more details on the subject mentioned above the following books can be consulted:-

1. History of India as told by (Muslim) Indian Historians, by Elliot
& Dowson, Vol. II.

2. Chronological Survey—Mohammedan History of India

Tajmahal is Tejomahalaya A Hindu Temple

   You must have heard about  the 7th  wonders of the world.  But have you heard about the 8th wonder of the world?  The 8th wonder is the temple of
the God Shiva (who is revered for the all the HIndus) which is known as the Taj Mahal in the present.

 When was TejoMahalaya constructed?  How much money was spent on it?  About this questions historians have different opinions.  It is obvious
because truth is always one but the lie is not indifferent.

 Some historians believe that the name of Taj Mahal is derrived from the name of "Mumtaz Mahal" who was queen of Shahjahan.  But the fact is
that the  original  name of queen "Mumtaz Mahal" was "Mumtaz-ul-Zamani".

 In the literature of memories king Babar, who was ancestor of Shahjahan, had noted that he had stayed in the "Tejo Mahalaya."

 Originally, on the bank of the river Yamuna this Hindu temple was built by the king "Parmardi Dev" who was ancestor of king of Jaipur, Mansing.
He built this temple in 1156 a.d. (By Hindu calendar - Ashwin Shukla Pancham, Vikram Samvat 12122 - Sunday).

 The temple was so huge and glorious that a poet had once writted that "God Shiva" will leave the Kailash (One of the peak of the Himalayas) and
will come to this "Cristal White Temple".

 The documentary proof of this temple is preserved in Government Muesum in Lucknow.

 The king who is called as the ideal of the lovers, Shahjahan, was the most cruel and fantic person.

 In India, the subject of history teaches us "Shahjahan was a lover of art and generous hearted.  He also respected other religions.  In his reign
supreme was the time of peace and goldenera for India."

 But the reality was that in 30 years of his reign  48 wars were fought which means one and half battle per year!  So,  it is strange to say this period
was the time of peace.

 These wars had greatly affected to the economical condition of Kingdom.  The history writer of  Shahjahan had noted that at the 4th year of his reign
(the year of Mumtaz's death) in South India and Gujarat there was a terrible famine.   People were also ready to give up their children for  a piece of
bread.  For long period the meat of dog was being sold as meat of Goat.  Powder of bones was being mixed with the floor.  To overcome this situation
king had started the stalls of food in Surat etc.  Can you imagine what the people would have affected by eating the meat and floor of such kind of?
What would have been the position of people ? In this terrible period.   A king who had 5000 wives, spent a carore of ruppees for his dead wife's
tomb!  How can you say that this period as a goldenera?

 In this terrible period, when Shahjahn had seen the "Tejo Mahalya" (The Temple of lights) which was the Rich and Holy temple of Hindu  people he
had decided to rob and destroy the temple  which was also called as a  Palace of King Mansing.   The windows of this temple were constructed from
Silver.  On the walls  of this temple very precious dimonds were fitted.

 It is natural the any robber would have noticed a precious temple like "Tejo Mahalaya".  During the same period Mumtaz died,  Shahjahan took the
golden opportunity and the dug the dead body of Mumtaz from the grave yard of  Barhanpur and reburial into the Hindu Temple "Tejo Mahalya".

(Note this paragraph)
 In Badshah nama writted that "In Southern part of Agara city to make the tomb of Mumtaz, Shahjahan had purchased a part of earth  from
Mansing's grandson Jaising.  On this part of earth there is a beautiful garden and building "Imart -E-Alishan" or "Gumbaj-E-Manzil, King Mansing"
means that a huge and extraordinary palace of King Mansing which is convered by  great Dome was already there.

 Shahjahan who was come from the culture which knows only to rob,  he purchased earth in his kingdom,  from his under ruled king for his wife's tomb!
How can this be believed?

 About his kind heartness for other religions read this : - Mr. Kanvarlal wrote that Shahjahan was regid "sunni" and mostly  he made the distructions
of the temples by his wife's (Mumtaz) advice.   He also destroyed the Christian Church  of Agara city.

 After turning the temple into the grave yard he started to develop Tejo Mahalya in the islamic way.   For this he arrested poor Hindus from nearby
city   Agra and made they work as a labour. The contractors   of Shahjahan were very wicked.   The Hindu labourers  had to work very hard and were
not able to get not even the salaory but the food to eat.   Therefore, whenever the Hindu labourer try to revolt against Shahjahan's contractor,  his
hands were  broken by the soldiers of Shahjahan.  (Therefore, in the legends it was written that Shahjahan had broken the hands of masons who  had
built the Taj Mahal.

 Still, if we want some proofs in the year of 1952-54 Shri S.R. Rao had taken care of Taj Mahal.  While doing the repairing of the wall of the Central
Hall  of the Taj Mahal.  He found the idols of "Ashtavasu" who was the God of Hindus.    By wathing these all S.R. Rao afraid,  for discussion,  he
met to Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Prime Minister of Jawaharlal Nehru.  " What will Muslims feel? If Hindus want to get back this building ?"
Three of them were afraid of it.   Therefore, Nehur ordered to them to bury  that idols in the walls of the Taj Mahal.

 One more proof is that one American Professior of Pret School, of Architecture in New York.  When he checked  the  wood of door of the Taj Mahal
by "Carbon-14".  He got the information that the doors of the Taj Mahal were 300 years old from the time of Shahjahan.  We are not saying to count
the period of construction because all the Muslim attackers along with Taimur Lang  attacked the temple and burnt and destroyed the doors of the
Taj Mahal.  So many a times Hindu Kings had to make new doors for Taj Mahal.

 And tale of love of Mumtaz and Shahjahan, Shahjahan had 5000 legal wives.  We can imagine that how much love he had for her?  Though after the
death of Mumtaz he built the tomb with 7 floors and it was so big . When Mumtaz was alive,  how much big Palace he must have made for her....?

                                                                       Written By P.N. Oak

More Links:

One View of "Vedic Afghanistan:

Places of Pilgrimage in the region:

India and Indus Valley civilisation

Indian Heritage Web-site - hundreds of links, pictures, pages - Vedic Culture at it's nicest:

India's REAL Time-lines page.....

The Hindu - India's national newspaper supporting Vedik World Heritage view:

No Evidence of Aryan Invasion:

Temples destroyed or built over by Moslems in Tamil Nadu alone:


Hindu Holocaust Museum

Re-writing India's History: by Francois Gautier:

Ancient India in a new light:

'Lost Discoveries': The Non-Western Roots of Science